(Chronicle of the Scottish Nation)
John of Fordun c. 1345
Chapt. VIII "In the third Age, in the days of Moses, a certain king of one of the countries of Greece, Neolus, or Heolaus, by name, had a son, beautiful in countenance but wayward in spirit, called Gaythelos, to whom he allowed no authority in the kingdom. Roused to anger, and backed by a numerous band of youths, Gaythelos disturbed is father's kingdom by many cruel misdeeds, and angered his father and his people by his insolence. He was, therefor, driven out by force from his native land, and sailed to Egypt, where, being distinguished by courage and daring, and being of Royal birth, he married Scota, the daughter of Pharaoh. Another chronicle says that, in those days, all Egypt was overran by the Ethiopians, who, according to their usual custom. laid waste the country from the mountains to the town of Memphis and the Great Sea; so that Gaythelos, the son of Neollus, one of Pharaoh's allies, was sent to his assistance with a large army; and the king gave him his only daughter in marriage, to seal the compact. It is written in the Legend of St. Brandan that a certain warrior, to whom the chiefs of is nation had assigned the sovereignty, reigned over Athens in Greece; and that his son, Gaythelos by name, married the daughter of Pharaoh, king of Egypt. Scota, from whom also the Scots derived their name. And he, that is, Gaythelos, who was conspicuous for strength and boldness, exasperated his father, and everyone, by his warwardness, departing on account of the failure of his cause, rather than of his own accord, retired into Egypt, supported by a spirited band of youths. Another Chronicle, again, says: But a certain Gaythelos, the grandson, it is said, of Nembricht, being unwilling to reign by right of succession, or because the people, assisted by the neighboring nations, would not submit to his tyranny, left his country followed by a great crowd of young men, with an army. At length, harassed by many wars in various places, and compelled by want of provisions, he came to Egypt and having joined King Pharaoh, he strove, together with the Egyptians, to keep the children of Israel in perpetual bondage; and he finally married Pharaoh's only daughter, Scota, with the view of succeeding his father-in-law on the throne of Egypt. Chapt. X ..... the above mentioned Pharaoh was swallowed up, with his army of 600 chariots, 50,000 horse and 200,000 foot; while the survivors, who remained at home, hoping to be released from the tax of grain formerly introduced by Joseph in the time of famine, suddenly drove clean out of the kingdom, with his followers, lest he should usurp dominion over them, the king's son-in-law Gaythelos Glas, who had refused to pursue the inoffensive Hebrews. Thus then the assembled villagers cruelly expelled from their midst, by a servile insurrection, all the nobles of the Greeks, as well as those of the Egyptians, whom the greedy sea had not swallowed up. We read in another chronicle: After the army was gone, Gaythelos remained behind in the city of Heliopolis, by a plan arranged between him and King Pharaoh, in case he should have to succeed him in his kingdom. But the remainder of the Egyptian people, perceiving what befell their king, and, at the same time, being on their guard lest, once subject to the yoke of a foreign tyranny, they should not be able to shake it off again, gathered together their forces, and sent word to Gaythelos that, if he did not hasten, as much as possible, his departure from the kingdom, endless mischief would result to him and his without delay. Chapt. XI Now Gaythelos, since he was the king's son-in-law, and the most noble of all, is set up as king over them by the expeled nobles of both nations. But, although attended by a numerous army, he cautiously came to the conclusion that he could not withstand the hosts of so great a multitude of durious enemies; and knowing, also, that the path of his return into Greece was closed to him, on account of the crimes he had formerly perpetrated there, he decided, to a certain extent, indeed, by the advice of his officers, that he either would seize from some other nation a kingdom and lands, and dwell there in continual warfare, or, by the favour of the gods, would only seek out some desert place to take possession of, for a settlement. This they all in concert swore to put into due execution, as far as they were able. Having, therefore, appointed Gaythelos their leader, the banished nobles, impelled to some extent by a youthful craving for adventure, soon made ready a good- sized fleet, laden with provisions in store and the other necessaries for an expedition, to go in quest of new lands to settle in, on the uttermost confines of the world, hitherto, as they imagined, unoccupied. Another Chronicle says: Gaythelos, therefore, assembled his retainers, and, with his wife Scota, quitted Egypt; and as, on account of an old feud, he feared to retrace his steps to those parts whence he had come into Egypt, he bent his course westwards, where, he knew, the inhabitants against whom he would have to struggle with his men, unskilled as these were in the use of arms, were fewer and less warlike. Another Chronicle has the following account: At length all was ready, and Geythelos, with his wife and whole family, and the other leaders, trusting to the direction of their gods, embark, in boats, on board ships prepared for them; and when the sailors, with busy diligence, had weighed anchor, and cast off the warps, the sails are spread wide to the blasts of the winds. Then, sailing out into the inland channel, they made for the western tracts of the world, with prows cutting the waves of the sea between the southern limits of Europe and Africa. Chapt. XII Gaythelos, then, having wandered through many provinces, and made various halts in such spots as he found convenient, because he knew that the people he led, burdened as they were with wives and children, and much baggage, weredistressed beyond measure, entered Africa by the river Ansaga, and rested in quiet, for some time, in a province of Numidia, though the dwellers in that oountry had no habitation where they can be sure of quiet. For the forty years, therefore, that the children of Israel dwelt in the desert, under Moses, gaythelos himself, also, with his followers, wandered, now here, now there, through many lands, but at length, leaving Africa, he embarked in such ships as he could then get, and went over into Spain, near the islands of Gaes. Another Chronicle tells us: Thus, indeed, wandering hither and thither, they kept traversing, for a long time, many unknown parts of the sea; and forasmuch as they were driven about by the violence of contrary winds, they were exposed to many dangers, and various risks, until at length, just as they were being pinched by want of provisions, they unexpectedly arrive safely in some part of the coast of Spain. There the ships were laid up, made fast to mooring which had been laid down. Chapt. XIV In the meantime, being harassed by the long fatigues of the sea, they hastened to the land of Spain, for the sake of obtaining food and rest. But the natives hastily assemble from every side, and, brooking ill the arrival of the newcomers, propose to withstand them by force of arms. They are soon engaged in battle and after a desperate struggle, the natives are overcome and put to flight. The victory thus gained, Gaythelos pursues the natives, and, having plundered part of the surr-unding country, he rturned to the shore, and pitched his tents, arrounded by a mound, on a certain hillock on rising ground, where he could more safely appose the attacking columns of the enemy. He there afterwards the natives having been subdued for a while, built by degrees a very strong town, by name Brigancia, in the middle of which he erected a tower of exceeding height, surrounded by a deep ditch, which is still to be seen, He thus passed all the days of his life there, harassed by the continual assaults of war, and perpetually entangled in the various chances of fortune. The Legend of Saint Brandan says: But Gaythelos, driven out of Egypt, and thus sailing through the Mediterranean Sea, brings to in Spain, and building, on the River Hyber, a tower, Brigancia by name, he usurped by force from the inhabitants a place to settle in. Chapt. XIV ..... minded therefore, to return to the plan he had before conceived in Egypt, he, with the advice of his council, calls the seamen together, and straightaway directs, them, being provided with arms, and boats provisioned with victuals, to explore the boundless ocean, in search of some desert land. They duly put off to the ships, set sail, and leave the coast of Spain; and, leaving behind them the places they knew, enter an unknown sea. After a most speedy passage, by the favour of the gods, they preceive, looming up afar off, an island washed by the sea on all sides, and having reached it, and put into the nearest harbour, they make the circuit of the island, to explore it. When they had examined it as thoroughly as they could, they row quicly back to Brigancia, bringing their King Gaythelos tidings of a certain most beautiful tract of land, discovered in the ocean. Chapt. XVI Now Gaythelos, since he was unacceptable to the inhabitants, looking forth, one clear day, from Brigancia, and seeing land for out at sea, arms some active and warlike youths, and directs them to explore it in three boats, and they commit themselves to the high seas. They, at length, against a northerly wind, came in a body to the island, and rowing round it to reconnoitre, attacked the inhabitants they found, and slew them. And, thus, having explored the land, and admired its goodliness, they return to Brigancia. But Gaythelos, overtaken by a sudden death, exhorted his sons, and impressed upon them that they should do their best to get possession of the aforesaid land, charging them with both slothfulness and cowardice if they gave up so noble a kingdom, and one which they could penetrate into without war or danger. Chapt. XVII Hyber therefore, having heard his father's words, went, with his brother Hymec, tot he foresaid island, with a fleet, and took it, not by force, but untenanted, as some would have it, by a single inhabitant, and making it over, when taken, to his brother and his family, he returned to Spain....... The Legend of St. Brandan says: Now one of the sons of Gaythelos, Hyber by name, a young man, but valiant for his years, being incited to wwar by his spirit, took up arms and having prepared such a fleet as he could, went to the foresaid island, and slew part of the few inhabitants he found, and part he subdued. He thus apporopriated that whole land as a possession for himself and his brehren, calling it Scotia, from his mother's name. Chapt. XX To the government, however, of the Scots remaining in Spain, after his father's death, succeeed Hyber. His son Nenael succeeded him. For about two hundred and forty years, says another Chronicle, they made a stay, with sorry sustenance and clothing amongst the Hispani, who molested them continually. Chapt. XXI Another Chronicle writes as follows: After the death of Gaythelos and Scota, and of their sons, the next of kin always succeeded to the chieftainship in his turn, as occasion arose, down to one whose proper name was Pertholomus. He, being as agacious in spirit as active in understanding, began to lament that he and his people could not increase nor mulitiply in those parts, on account of the very grievous and frequent molestations of the hostile Hispani. They therefore determined to escape from so barren a soil, which too, they had held in misery, among such as reputed them the vilest of men, and to pass over to some more roomy place of abode, if possible. Having at length eagerly taken cousel with the elders, they come to the Gallic Sea fwith bag and baggage, and having prepared ships, or procured them wherever they could, they commit themselves to the dangers of the deep, seeking, wherever fortune might lead them a sure and perpetual home, in freedom. Thus Pertholomus, with his family, set out for Ireland with a fleet, and having subdued the natives, obtained it as a perpetual possession for himself. Chapt. XXI At length, the supreme authority came to a man equally energetic and industrious, that is, King Mycelius Espayn, one of whose ancestors had won for himself and his tribes with their liberty, a place of abode, free indeed but too small for tribes so strong in numbers....... Mycelius had three sons, named Hermonius, Pertholomus, and Hibertus. These then, when he had prepared a fleet, he sent with a numerous army to Ireland, knowing that they would find there a spacious, but nearly uninhabited land to dwell in, though it had been settled of old by some small tribes of the same race. And when they had s short time after, arrived there and had easily taken posession of it, whether by force of arms or with the consent of the inhabitants, Hermonius returned to Spain, to his father, while his brothers, Pertholomus and Hibertus, with their tribes, remained in the island. Chapt. XXII [quoting Geoffrey of Monmouth] Gurgunt Bartruc, king of the Britons, son of King Belinus, when he was returned home with a fleet, by the Orkney islands, after a victory over the Dacians, who had denied him the wonted tribute, came across thirty ships full of men and women, and, when he had inquired the cause of their coming, their leader, Pertholomus by name, came up to him and making obeissance to him, desired pardon and peace. For, he aid, he had been driven out of a district of spain, and was wandering about these seas; and he begged of him a small part of Britain to inhabit, that he might bring to an end his tedious wanderings at sea; for a year and a half had already elapsed since, driven out of his own country, he had sailed about the ocean with his companions. When, therefore, Gurgunt Bartruc had gathered that they had come out of Spain, and were called Vasclenses, and what their request was, he sent men with them to the island of Ireland, which was then wholly uninhabited, and assigned it to them. There they increased and multiplied and they have held the island to the present day. Such is Geoffrey's account. Chapt. XXVI In process of time there came, besides, as the Chronicles teach, from the confines of the Hispani to the above-mentioned Island, a third colonist of Scottish race, whose name was, in Scottish, Smonbricht, but in Latin, Simon Varius or Lentigenosus, and, there, seizing the reigns of government, greatly increased the population of the island with fresh inhabitants. The above-mentioned Simon was the son of King Fonduf, who at that time reigned over the remainder of the Scots who dwelt in Spain, and he was the son of Etheon, the son of Glachus, the son of Noethath Fail, the son of Elchata Olchaim, the son of Sirue, the son of Dein, the son of Demail, the son of Rothotha, the son of Ogmam, the son of Engus Olmucatha, the son of Frachach Labrain, the son of Emirnal, the son of Smertha, the son of Embatha, the son of Thernay, the son of Falegis, the son of Etheor, the son of Jair Olfatha, the son of Hermonius, the brother of Bartholomus and Hibert. These three were the sons of Mycelius Espayn, mentioned above. Chapt. L I think it meet in these writings to bring in this glorious King David's pedigree on the father's side, which I got long ago from the Lord Cardinal of Scotland, the noble Doctor Walter of Wardlaw, Bishop of Glasgow; that it may be known unto you, kings of these days, and to all readers, of how old, how noble, how strong and invincible a stock of kings he came (whereof ye also are come) - kings who have, until now, through the blessed King Most High, been keeping the kingly dignity unspotted for a longer time, with freer service, and, what is more glorious, with a stronger hold of the Catholic faith than all other kings, save only a few, if any. For that blessed King David was the son of the most noble Malcolm, king of Scots, the husband of the blessed Queen Margaret, and son of Duncan, son of Beatrice, daughter of Malcolm the Most Victorious, son of Kenneth, son of Malcolm, son of Dovernald, son of Constantine, son of Kenneth, the first sole sovereign; from whom, as was seen in Book IV, Chapter VIII, the royal line is traced to that most vigorous king, Fergus son of Erth, who nobly wrested the kingdom from the Romans and the Picts, after these had usurped it, and held it three-and forty years. And that Erth was the son of Euchadius, brother to King Eugenius, who was slain by the Romans and the Picts. Eugenius was the son of Angusafith, son of Fechelmech, son of Angusa, son of Fechelmech Romach, son of Sencormach, son of Crucluith, son of Findach, son of Akirkirre, son of Echadius, son of Fechrach, son of Euchodius Reid, son of Conere, son of Mogal, son of Lugtach, son of Corbre, son of Dordremore, son of Corbrefynore, son of Coneremore son of Therskeol, son of Ewin, son of Ellela, son of Iaire, son of Detach, son of Syn, son of Rosyn, son of Ther, son of Rether, son of Ewen, son of Arindeil, son of Manre, son of Fergus, who brought the Scots out of Ireland, and first reigned over them in British Scotia; and the chain of whose royal lineage stretches up, as was seen in Book I, chapter XXVI, as far as Simon Brek, who brought over with him to Ireland, from Spain, the Coronation stone of the kings. This Simon Brek was the son of Fonduf, son of Etheon, son of Glathus, son of Nothachus, son of elchatha, son of Syrne, son of Deyne, son of Demal, son of Rothach, the first who dwelt in the Scottish islands. He was the son of Ogmayn, son of Aengus, son of Fiathath, son of Smyrnay, son of Synretha, son of Embatha, son of Thyerna, son of Faleng, son of Etheor, son of Jair, son of Ermon, son of Michael Espayn, son of Bile son of Neande, son of Bregayn, son of Bratha, son of Deatha, son of Erchatha, son of aldoch, son of Node, son of Nonael, son of Iber Scot, son of King Gaythelos and Scota, first king and queen of the Scottish nation. Whence this line - "Iber, their son, first bore the name of Scot." This Gaythelos was the son of Neolos, king of Athens, son of Fenyas, son of Ewan, son of Glonyn, son of Lamy, son of Etheor, son of Achnemane, son of Choe, son of Boib, son of Jeyn, son of Mayr, son of Hethech, son of Abyur, son of Arthech, son of Aroth, son of Jara, son of Esralb, son of Richaith, son of Scot, son of Gomer, son of Japhet, son of Noah.