Variant texts from the Lebor Gabala Erren
    Minuguid (Min.)   
    Early history of the Gaedil
    Stowe D.5.1 




    "Others say that Baath was son of Ibath s. Gomer s. Iafeth, and from him 
are the Gaedil and the people of Scythia; and Feinius Farsaid was a son of 
him. 

    Feinius had two sons;  Nenual, whom he left over the princedom of 
Scythia behind him;  and Nel, the other son, and at the Tower was he born.  
Now he was a master of the mulitiplicity of languages, so that it is he who 
was taken into Egypt, to learn from him the mulitiplicity of languages.  But 
Feinius came from Asia to Scythia, whence he had gone for the building of the 
tower;  so he died in the princedom of Scythia, at the end of forty years, and 
passed on the chieftainship to his son, Nenual. 

    At the end of forty and two years after the cessation of work on the 
Tower, Ninus son of Belus took the kingship of the world. 
    
    That is the time when Gaedel Glas was born - who formed the Elect 
language out of the seventy-two languages;  these are their names -
    
    Poem No. XI 

    Now Sru s. Esru s. Gaedel, he it is who was chieftain of the Gaedil who 
went from Egypt until Phaao as drowned.  Four hundred and seventy years 
from the Flood till then. 
    
    Four ships companies strong went Sru out of Egypt, with twenty-four 
wedded couples and three hirelings for every ship.  Sru and his son Eber 
Scot, they were the chieftains of that expedition.  That was the time of Nenual 
grandson of Feinius, prince of Scythia.  Sru died immediately after reaching 
Scythia. 
    
   Eber Scot took the kingship of Scythia by force from the progeny of 
Nenual, till he fell at the hands of Noemius s. Nenual.  There was a contention 
betwen Noemius and Boamain s. Eber Scot.  Boamain took the kingship till he 
fell at the hands of Noemius.  Noemius took the princedom till he fell at the 
hands of Ogamain s. Boamain in vengeance for his father.  Ogamain took the 
kingship till he fell at the hands of Tat s. Ogamain.  Thereafter Tat fell at the 
hands of Refloir s. Refill.  Thereafer there was a contention between Refloir s. 
Refill and Agnomain s. Tat, till Refloir fell at the hands of Agnomain s. Tat. 
    
    For that reason was the seed of Gaedel driven forth upon the sea, to wit 
Agnomain and Lamfhind his son, so that they were seven years upon the sea, 
skirting the world on the north side.  More than can be reckoned or related 
are the hardships which they suffered.  (The reason why he was called 
Lamfhind was, because not greater used to be the radiance of a candle than 
his hands at the rowing).  They had three ships with a coupling between them 
that they should not separate from one another.  They had three chieftains 
after the death of Agnomain on the surface of the great Caspian Sea, Lamfhind 
and Allot and Caicher the druid. 
    
    It is Caicher who gave them a remedy against the melody of the Sirens, 
namely to melt wax in their ears.  So the wind took them into the great Ocean, 
and they suffered much of hunger and thirst;  till at the end of a week they 
reached the great proontory out northward from the Rhipaean Mountain, and 
in that promontory they found a spring with the taste of wine, and they 
feated there, and were asleep there three days and three nights.  But Caicher 
said to them:  Rise, we shall not rest therefrom till we reach Ireland. What 
place is Ireland, said Lamfhind. It is further from thee than Scythia, and not 
we ourselves shall reach it, but our children, at the end of three hundred 
years. 
    
    Then they settled in the Macotic Marshes, and there a son was born to 
Lamfhind, Eber Glunfhind (white marks which were on his knees).  It is he 
who was chieftain after his father.  His grandson was Febri (Glas), his 
grandson was Nuadu. 
    
    This is why the Gaedil were driven forth from Scythia, for the crime of 
slaying Refloir s. Refill s. Noemius s. Nenual s. Baath s. Ibath s. Feinius 
Farsaid. 
    
    Brath s. Death s. Ercha s. Allot s. Nuadu s. Nenual s. Febri Glas s. Agni 
s. Eber Glunfhind s. Lamfhind s. Agnomain s. Tat s. Ogamain s. Boamain s. 
Eber Scot. 
    
    Occe and Ucce, two sons of Allot s. Nenual s. Nemed s. Allot s. Ogamain  
s. Toithect s. Tetrech s. Eber Dub s. Allot s. Agnomain.  Mantan s. Caicher s. 
Ercha s. Coemthecht s. Soithecht s. Mantan s. Caicher the druid. 
    
    This is that Brath s. Death who came out of Eastern Albania to the land 
of Narboscorda, over the Euxine River, across the Rhipaean Mountain, to the 
Macotic Marshes, to the Torrian Sea, by the long straits of the Torrian Sea to 
the Hellespont, by the Macedonian Gulf to the Pamphylian Gulf, by the island 
of Tyre to the island of Crete, to the island of Coroyra, by the island of 
Cephallenia, to the island of Crete, to the shore of the Pelorians, to the island 
of Sicily, across the top of Mount Tna, by the side of the Torrian Sea, to 
Sardinia, to Corsica, to the island of Sardia, over the Balearic Sea to the 
surface of the Strait of Gibraltar to the Strong islands, 'o the Columns of 
Hercules, (Calpe and Abyla are their names) to the swamp called Coir, to the 
outmost bottomless abyss (the Atlantic Ocean), to spain, to the Pyrenaean 
wood-ridges. 
    
    till they took Spain by force. 
    
    And they fought fifty and four battles there first and last, and a city 
was built there by Bregon s. Brath.  And he erected a tower there to protect 
it, and thence was Ireland seen thereafter, on a winter evening. 
    
    As for Agnomain s. Tat he is the Gaedil leader who came forth from 
Scythia.  He had two sons, Lamfhind and Allot.  One son had Lamfhind, Eber 
Glunfhind.  Allot had a son, Eber Dub;  at the same time as the sojourn in the 
Marshes was he born.  They had two grandsons in joint rule, Toithecht s. 
Tetrech s. Eber Dub and Nenual s. Febri s. Agni s. Eber Glunfhind.  There 
was also Soithecht s. Mantan s. Caicher. 
    
    Four ships companies strong came the Gaedil to Spain:  in every ship 
fourteen wedded couples and six unwived hirelings.  Brath, a ship's company.  
Occe and Ucce, the two sons of Allot, two ships' companies.  Mantan, a ship's 
company.  they broke three battles - one against the Tuscans, one against the 
Bacra, one against the Longobardi.  But there came a plague upon them, and 
four and twenty of their number died thereof.  Out of two ships none escaped 
save twice five men, including En s. Occe and Un s. Ucce. 
    
    Brath had a good son, Breogan by name.  By him was Braganza fouunded, 
and the tower made, ut supra diximus.  Unde Gilla Cocinain cecinit -

                          Poem No. XIII 

                   Adam O Cuirmin wrote it, for 
                   Gilla Isu mac Firbissigh, the     
          man of learning of the Ui Fiachrach. A.D. 1418 




    Redaction Two (R2)
    Early history of the Gaedil
    Stowe D.5.1


    So Nel son of Feinius Farsaid dwelt southward in Egypt. This is the 
estate 
    which he received, upon the shores of the Red Sea and around Phi-
Hahiroth;  and he was there till the Sons of Israel escaped from Pharao and 
from the host of Egypt.  Now it fell out that the Sons of Israel, in that flight, 
came to the estate where Nel was, and his son, Gaedel Glas.  The Sons of 
Israel took camp at Phi-Hahiroth on the border of the Red Sea.  Then Nel son 
of Feinius came to converse with them and there Aaron (brother of Abraham) 
met Nel;  and kAaron told him tidings of the Sons of Israel and the miracles 
and marvels of Moses, and how the ten plagues were brought upon the people 
of Egypt by reason of their enslavement.  And they ratified a friendship 
there, and Nel gives wine and wheat to the peoples of JGod for provision.  
JSo Aaron went thereafter to the place where Moses was, and told him of the 
welcome which he had received at the hands of Nel, and the good which he 
promised to the Sons of Israel.  Moses was grateful to Nel for that. 
    
    Now, as for Nel, in that very night, a serpent stung the little son that 
had been born to him, to wit Gaedel Glas, and death was near to him.  (From 
that circumstance he receifed his name, Gaedel Glas.)  And the lad was carried 
to Moses, and Moses made fervent prayer before God and put the noble rod 
upon the place where the serpent had stung him, so that the land as cured.  
And thereafter Moses said:  I command, by the permission of God, that no 
serpent harm this land, or any or his seed for ever;  and that no serpent 
dwell in the homeland of his progeny.  There shall be, he said, kings and 
lords, saints and righteous, of the seed of this lad;  and in the northern 
island of the world shall be the dwelling of his race.  This, then, is the 
reason why there are no serpents in Ireland, and why no serpent does harm 
to any of the seed of Gaedel Glas. 
    
    Then it is that Nel said:  Pharao shall come to us, said he, and shall 
enslave us, for the welcome that we have given you, and for the guilt of 
failing to hinder you.  come thou with us, said Moses, with all thy people, 
upon tomorrow's route, and if thou wilt, thou shalt receive an equal share of 
heritage in the land which God hath promised to the Sons of Israel.  Or, if 
thou dost prefer, we shall put the pinnaces of Pharao at thy disposal;  
embark ye therin upon the sea, and stand ye by, to know by what means we 
shall separate us from Pharao, and thereafter do they good pleasure. 
    
    The company that was in the ships set forth and they stood by to see 
the transactions of the following day;  the division of the Red Sea in the wake 
of the people, and the drowning of Pharrao with his hosts therein - six score 
thousand footmen and fifty thousand horsemen, that is the tally which went to 
meet death, of the people of Pharao, in the Red Sea. 
    
    Now when Nel saw Pharao with his hosts drowned, he remained upon the 
same estate, for he had no fear there;  and his progeny and seed increased in 
Egypt thereafter, so that his progeny were warriors of great valour.  
Thereafter Nel died, after a long space, in Egypt.  Gaedel Glas and his mother 
took the estate.  Thereafter a son was born to Gaedel, Esru s. Gaedel;  and to 
him was a son born in the same land, Sru s. Esru s. Gaedel Glas. 
    
    But as for the host of Egypt thereafter, Pharao Tuir took the princedom 
after Pharao Cineris.  Now "Pharao" was an additional name of every king who 
took Egypt, from Pharao Cineris to Pharao Nectanebus;  and he was the 
thirty-fifth - or the fifteenth - king after Pharao Cineris who was drowned in 
the Red Sea.  It was for the sake of honouring them that this name was 
bestowed upon them. 
    
    As for Pharao Tuir thereafter and the host of Egypt, when they attained 
strength, they called to mind their hereditary hostility against the progeny of 
Nel and the family of Gaedel;  the friendship which these had shown to the 
Sons of Israel, and Nel's taking of the ships of Pharao with him, when the 
Sons of Israel escaped.  War and hostilities were increased upon the proteny 
of Nel thereafter, till they were expelled from Egypt. 
    
    Sru and his son Eber Scot, they were the chieftains for the Gaedil at the 
expulsion. Seven hundred and seventy years from the Flood till then.  Four 
hundred and forty years from that time when Pharao was drowned, and from 
when Sru son of Esru came out of Egypt, to the time when the Sons of Mil 
came into Ireland.  Whereanent this was said -
    
                           Poem No. XII 
    
    Thereafter the progeny of Nel, and Scota, daughter of Pharao, collected 
in four ships, with twenty-four wedded couples in each ship, upon the Red 
Sea, to Taprobane Island, around the Rhipaean Mountain northward, till they 
reached Scythia;  and the progeny of Nel and of Nenual, the two sons of 
Feinius Farsaid, contended in the matter of the princedom of Scythia, from 
that time till the time of Refloir son of Noemius and of Mil son of Bile (whose 
name was Galam.)  Many battles and conflicts and wars and kin-murders did 
they have between them during that time, till Mil son of Bile inflicted a mortal 
wound upon Refloir son of Noemius.  Nine hundred and twelve years did that 
contention last. 
    
    Thereafter Mil came into exile.  They had four ships, with fifteen wedded 
couples, and a hireling, every ship.  They went south-east around Asia to 
Taprobane Island.  They stayed three months therein.  Three other months 
had they on the sea, till they reached Egypt;  that was at the end of one 
thousand three hundred fifty and four years after the first Taking of Ireland 
by Partholon.  They reached Egypt at the end of nine hundred and fourteen 
years after the drowning of Pharao in the Red Sea. 
    
    Pharao Nectanebus as king of Egypt at that time.  He is the thirty-fifth 
king after the Pharao who was drowned in the Red Sea.  Now it was in that 
time that Alexander the Great, son of Philip, came into Asia and arrived in 
Egypt, and brought Egypt into obedience to himself, laid Egypt waste, and 
drove out her king Nectanebus from Egypt into Ethiopia;  and a capital city, 
called Alexandria, was founded by him in Egypt.  Now Mil son of Bile tarried 
eight years in Egypt, and his people learned the principal arts there - Setga, 
Sobairce, and Auirge learned craftsmanship.  Mantan, Caicher, and Fulman 
learned druidry.  One remaining three, Goscen, Amorgen, and Donn were 
arbitrators and judges.  The other three, Mil, Occe, and Ucce, were battle-
conquerers. 
  
    When Mil perceived that weakness and loss of strength had come upon 
Pharao, he took leave of him (by no means from fear, but because his druids 
had promised to obatin kingship and territory for him.)  So Mil came 
thereafter, (the same tally) and Scota daughter of Pharao Nechtenibus along 
with him as wife.  For this reason was she called Scota, because her husband 
was called Scot, that is to say according to the origin of the race called 
"Scots;"  and every woman in that country was surnamed according to her 
husband's race. 
    
    Thereafter they came upon the Red Sea.  They rowed to Taprobane 
Island, and tarried there a month.  Then they went around, past India and 
Asia, and around Scythia Petraea outward, on the Indian Sea northeard, till 
they reached the Northern Ocean (upon the Outer Sea), to the estuary of the 
Caspian Sea.  They held their peace for three weeks, upon the Caspian Sea, 
by reason of the crooning of the Sirens, until Caicher the druid delivered 
them.  This is the remedy that he found for them, to melt wax in their ears, 
so that they should not hear that crooning.  Thereafter they rowed (a sailing 
of six summer days), upon the Western Ocean, till they reached the Libyan Sea 
and Cercina;  and upon the surface of the Pontic Sea;  and they rowed past 
the promontory of the Rhipaean Mountain northward.  There it is that Caicher 
said to them:  We have no rest till we reach the noble island, (i.e., Ireland.) 
    
    Thereafter they rowed to the end of a year upon the Western Ocean till 
they reached the Macotic Marshes in the north;  past Germania, alongside 
Thracia, till they reached Dacia.  They tarried a month on Dacia northward;  
from the Aegean Sea, past Gothia, upon the Hellepontine Sea, to the island of 
Tenedos upon the Torrian Sea westward, to Crete, to Sicily, to Belgia and 
Burgundia, to the Columns of Hercules, to the surface of the Strait of 
Gibralter, in three-cornered Spain. 
    
    Fifty-four battles did they win before them against the Frisians, and the 
Langobardi, and the Barchu, and they took spain by force;  and a city was 
founded there by Breogan son of Brath, (named Braganza), with a tower to 
protect it.  From that tower was Ireland seen on a winter's evening.  Ith son 
of Breogan saw it. 
    
    Now those are the adventures of the Gaedil from Scythia to Spain;  so 
that the following is said anent those their adventures. 
    
                           Poem No. XIV 
     

     Redaction Three (R3)
     Early history of the Gaedil
     Book of Ballymote     
    
    
    Baath s. Magog s. Iafeth, of him are the Gaedil and the people of Scythia.  
Now he had a son, the noble iminent chieftain whose name was Feinius Farsaid.  
It is he who was one of the seventy-two chieftains who went for the building 
of Nemrod's Tower, whence the languages were dispersed. 
    
    The narratives and adventures of the kindred of Gaedel from Magog son 
of Iapheth and from Sru son of Esru;  how they departed out of the land of 
Egypt, and Scythia, and spain, till they reached Ireland;  their battles 
moreover, and their conflicts in Scythia, and the kin-murder of the progeny 
of Nenual and of Nel;  how these broke out in the matter of the princedom of 
Scythia, for a space of nine hundred and twelve years;  for that is the length 
which that great war had.  Here now is an exposition and a systematizing of 
their journey, from the Tower of Nemrod onward. 
    
    Feinius Farsaid s. Baath s. Magog s. Iafeth s. Noe. Or Feinius Farsaid s. 
    Eogan s. Glunfhind s. Lamfhind s. Etheor s. Thoe s. Bodh s. Sem s. Mar 
s. Aurthacht s. Aboth s. Ara s. Iarra s. Sru s. Esru s. Baath s. Rifaith Scot 
from whom are the Scots.  Now it is Rifaith Scot who brought the Scotic 
language from the Tower.  For he was one of the eight chief cleaders who 
were at the building of the Tower of Nemrod. 
    
    [These were] Faleg s. Eber s. Saile s. Arfaxad s. Sem s. Noe, [or Faleg s. 
Ragua s. Ardaxad, a quo India];  and Eber s. Saile s. Arfaxad, a quo the 
Hebrews;  and Grecus s. Gomer s. Iafeth s. Noe, a quo Scythian Greece;  and 
Latinus s. Faunus s. Italus, that is Alainus s. Ibath s. Magog s. Iafeth s. Noe, 
a quo Italy.  Riphath Scot, that is Feinius Farsaid, s. Baath s. Magog s. Iafeth 
s. Noe, a quo the Scots;  and Cai Cainbrethach s. Eber s. Saile s. Arfaxad;  
and Gaedel s. Etheor s. Bai s. Tai s. Barachan s. Magog s. Iafeth s. Noe;  and 
Nemrod s. Cus s. Ham s. Noe.  Thus was Nemrod, a valorous powerful 
champion, a haughty oppressive hard-hearted man, a well-known hunter of 
high renown in the eastern lands of Asia;  so that everyone had a proverb 
extracted from the Old Language, which was universally known - the valour 
and hunting-prowress of that man is against the Lord.  By that man was 
Babylon founded at the very first, in the middle of the plain of Senar, with 
the river Euphrates flowing through its middle.  It was afterwards fortified 
by Ninus son of Belus, when he took the kingship of the world and of the 
Assyrians.  "Babylon" is the same as confusion, by interpretation, and 
"mixing";  for in that place were mixed and troubled the construction and 
identity of the single language, so that there were many and various 
languages from that onwards for ever. 
    
    From that it is clea that Feinius was not at the building of the Tower, as 
historians say who do not harmonize the synchronisms.  But this is how it 
was, that it is Feinius Farsaid who was one of the sixteen men most learned 
[and of the highest degree] of the seed of Riphath Scot, who brought the 
Scotic language from the Tower. 
    
    Feinius had two sons, Nenual [or Neanunel], one of the two, whom he left 
in the princedom of Scythia after himself;  Nel, the other son of Feinius, at 
the Tower was he born.  Now he was a master in the mulitplicity of languages. 
    
    So that to summon him one came from Pharao Fostoiges from the prince of 
Egypt, in order to learn the languages from him. 
    
    This is that Nel, son of Feinius Farsaid, whom we have mentioned, whom 
Pharao Cineris king of Egypt invited for the greatness of his skill, his 
knowledge, and his learning;  and Pharao granted him an estate, and his 
daughter, whose name was Scota was bestowed.  [some say that the reason 
why she was called Scota was, that Scot was her husband's name, and "Scots" 
the name of the people from whom he came;  unde dicitur, Scotus and Scota.]  
Forty years from the dispersal of the Tower till Feinius Farsaid came from the 
north, out of Scythia, with his school, to seek for the languages;  for they 
thought they would find them there, inasmuch as it was hence they were 
dispersed.  Two years after the coming of Feinius from the North until Ninus 
[son of Belus]. 
    
    But Feinius came again into Asia in Scythia, for thence he had come for 
the building of the Tower of Nemrod;  Nemrod s. Cus s. Ham s. Noe.  So that 
he died in the princedom of Scythia, at the end of forty years after he had 
come from the Tower, and passed on the chieftainship to his son, Nenual. 
    
    Now at the end of two score and twelve years after the building of the 
Tower, Ninus son of Belus took the kingship of the world;  for no other 
attempted to exercise authority over the peoples, or to bring the multitude of 
nations under one authority, that is under tax and tribute, but he alone.  
Aforetime there had been chieftains;  he was the noblest and most in favour 
in the community, he it was who was chief counsellor for every man, who 
should avert all unjustice and further all justice which should be attempted 
against a nation;  and authority over other nations. 
    
    Eight hundred three score and fourteen years from the beginning of the 
princedom of Ninus to the end of the princedom of Tautanes, King of the 
World.  Toward his time Troy was captured for the last time.  There were 
seven years after that capture till Aeneas son of Anchises took Lavinia 
daughter of Latinus son of Faunus;  so that there are nine hundred forty and 
three years from the dispersal of the Tower till Aeneas took the daughter of 
Latinus, and Latinus made his treaties with him.  It is clear therefrom, that 
the authors of the Auraicept do not reach a correct conclusion when they say 
that Latinus was one of the eight chief leaders of the Tower of Nemrod, 
considering the length of time that passed down between them. 
    
    As for nel, the other son of Feinius, he lived southward in Egypt and 
took Scota daughter of Pharao Cineris to wife;  and there that Scota bore 
Gaedel Glas, from whom are the Gaedil, to Nel son of Feinius Farsaid.  So from 
that Scota the Gaedil are called Scots [and the name Feni is given to them 
from Feinius and Gaedil from Gaedel Glas], as the learned man said. 
    
                            Poem No. X 


    Or perhaps Scdota is the name of the community from which they came 
over to the Tower of Nimrod, from Scythia Petraea, from the east.  This is the 
reason why Feinius Farsaid acquired bardism, for that every one who was of 
the chieftains with him was distressed that the community of which they were, 
the Scoitiziani - its history had gone to loss in the hands of the elders of the 
Greeks.  So that it was to find the history of the Scots, from which he was 
sprung, that he came to learn bardism;  and thence is he named Feinius 
Farsaid, i.e., one who has knowledge of ancient things, in Hebrew, in Greek, in 
Latin, and in all the languages in general;  for he continually made progress 
in them. 
    
    It is Gaedel who formed the Gaedelic language out of the seventy-two 
languages.  These are their names. 
    
    [variant passage]  After the dispersal of everyone from the Tower, and 
after they were mixed and confused by God by reason of their lawlessness, 
and fater the dispersal of the languages throughout the world, Feinius 
remained at the tower, and he dwelt there;  and he went forth a man into 
every quarter of the world, to collect the languages and to bring them to one 
place.  And after he had assembled the school and collected the languages, 
Feinius Farsaid cut the language of the Gaedil out of the seventy-two 
languages at the end of ten years after the dispersal of the Tower.  And he 
imparted it to his son Nel;  and Nel imparted it to his son Gaedel Glas and to 
his seed for ever;  and from him (Gaedel) is it named.  These are the 
languages. 
    
    To memorize those the poet said these words -
    
                            Poem No. XI 
    
    Now the learned count four divisions in the Gaelic language, with four 
names:  The Great Story, the Judgements of Nemed, the Science of Cermna, 
and The Science of Cano, the fourth.  "Canons" is the name of that division, 
for the greatness of its knowledge and its precedents.  Thrice fifty are its 
secret scripts and the courses, the course of Nin, the leaves of a forest, and 
whatever is related to them.  The second division, further, Grammar is its 
name, for the greatness of its excellent knowledge, for this it is which is the 
rudder for correct speech;  the Sciences moreover, and the additional 
sciences, and the captures, and the thirty stories, and the sixty subordinate 
stories, and whatevfer is related to them, are therein.  The third division, 
History is its name, for therein are spoken stories and matters of dispute.  
The Judgements of Cai, with which the fourth is included, Prosody is its name, 
as the poet says -
 
                            Poem No. XV 
    
    Men of learning consider that Gaedelic has four divisions and four names, 
being a like number with the divisions which we have enumerated ... to wit, 
Hebrew, Breek and Latin, as well as its own name Gaedelic, from Gaedel.  
Ticcoloth is its Hebrew name, Moloth its Greek name, Leguius its Latin name;  
Tinoiltech was the name which Gaedel had for it, he who cut it out, as the 
poet said -
    
                           Poem No.  XVI 
    
    Now though many were those tongues from the Tower of Nemrod, there 
was not more than one language serving everyone until it was built.  
Gorthigern was the name of the language, and it is called the Hebrew language 
today, as one said -
    
                           Poem No. XVII 
    
    Now when that Nel son of Feinius dwelt in Egypt, this is the estate which 
he received, upon the shores of the Red Sea, and around Phi-Hahiroth;  and 
he was there till the Sons of Israel escaped from Pharao and from the host of 
Egypt.  Now it fell out that the Sons of Israel, in that flight, came to the 
estae where Nel was, and his son, Gaedel Glas.  The Sons of Israel alighted 
and took camp at Phi-Hahiroth, on the border of the Red Sea.  Then Nel son 
of Feinius came to converse with them, and to find out who was there;  and 
there Aaron met with him aside from the host, and Aaron told him tidings of 
the Sons of Israel, to wit, the marvels and miracles of Moses, and how the ten 
plagues - a clearness of testimony - were brought upon the people of Egypt, 
by reason of their enslavement.  And they ratified a treaty and friendship, 
and Nel asked Aaron if they had provision of food-stores.  He said further, 
that what is here of wheat and of good things - said he - shall all be put at 
your disposal.  Thereat the night fell upon them, and Nel went to his own 
house;  and Aaron went into the camp. to the place where Moses was, and told 
him the welcome which he had received at the hands of Nel, and the good 
which he promised to the Sons of Israel.  Grateful were Moses and Aaron of 
Nel, at those tidings. 
    
    But as for Nel, when he came to his own folk, he told them how the Sons 
of Israel had a camp at Phi-Hahiroth and at Succoth.  He related the tidings 
of Moses and Aaron in full before the company.  Now in that night a venemous 
poisonous serpent stung the little son whom Nel had, Gadel Glas, and eath was 
near to him.  From that he received the addition to his name.  His people said 
to Nel that he should carry the lad to Moses.  The lad was brought to Moses, 
and Nel came with him.  Moses made fervent prayer before God, and put the 
famous rod upon the place where the serpent stung the land, so that he was 
cured.  And he said:  I command, and God commandeth, that no serpent harm 
this lad or any of his seed for ever;  and that no serpent shall ever dwell in 
the homeland of his progeny.  And, he said, there shall be kings and lords, 
saints and righteous, of the seed of that lad;  and in a northern island of the 
world it is that the dwelling of his race shall be.  This is the reaon why 
there is no serpent or venemous reptile can do harm to any of the seed of 
Gaedel.  And he left bequests to the lad and to his seed, as the poet said -
    
                          Poem No. XVIII 
    
    
    Then it is that Nel said:  Pharao shall come to us, said he, and shall 
enslave us, for the welcome that we have given you, and for the crime of 
failing to hinder you.  Come with us on tomorrow's route, said "Aaron, and 
stay with us continually, if so thou wilt:  thou shalt obtain an equal share of 
heritqge and of territory in the land which God hath promised to the Sons of 
Israel for their own service.  Or if thou dost prefer, we shall put the 
pinnaces of Pharao at thy disposal;  embark in them upon the sea, and stand 
by till thou knowest by what means we shall separate from Pharao;  and 
thereafter do thy good pleasure. 
    
    That is the advice which is right said Nel.  Then they sent with Nel 
three thousand men armed and fit for combat, to the place where the ships 
were, and they were given to Nel, so that they were at his disposal.  Why did 
not the Sons of Israel themselves take the ships?  In order that Pharao 
should not find means of pursuing them. 
    
    The company that was in them set forth, and stood by to see the 
transations of the following day - the division of the Red Sea in the wake of 
the people, and the drowning of Pharao with his hosts therein - six score 
thousand footmen and fifty thousand horsemen.  That is the tally that went to 
meet death of the people of Pharao in the Red Sea. 
    
    Now when Nel saw Pharao with his hosts drowned in the Red Sea, he 
remained upon the same estate, for he had no fear nor terror.  His progeny 
and hiis seed increased there in Egypt, till they were warriors of great 
valour.  Thereafter Nel died, after a long space, in Egypt, and Gaedel Glas and 
his mother took the estate.  A son was born to him in the same land, Esru s. 
Gaedel.  To him was a son born in the same land, Sru s. Esru s. Gaedel. 
    
    As for the host of Egypt after that, Pharao Tuir took the princedom after 
Pharao Cineris.  Now 'Pharao' was an additional name for every king who took 
Egypt, from Pharao Cineris to Pharao Nectanebus;  he was the thirty-fifth - 
or the fifteenth - king after Pharao Cineris who was drowned in the Red Sea.  
It was for the sake of Honour that this name was bestowed upon them. 
    
    As for Pharao Tuir thereafter and the host of Egypt, when they attained 
strength, they called to mind their hereditary hostility against the progeny of 
Nel and the family of Gaedel - the friendship which he had shown to the Sons 
of Israel, and Nel's taking of the ships of Pharao Cineris with him, when the 
Sons of Israel escaped.  War and hostilities against them were increased 
thereafter upon them, and they were expelled, against their will, out of Egypt. 
    
    Sru s. Esru s. Gaedel, he it is who was chieftain for the Gaedil at that 
expulsion from Egypt, after Pharao was drowned in the Red Sea, in the wake 
of the Sons of Israel.  Seven hundred and forty years from that time when 
Pharao was drowned, and when Sru s. Esru came out of Egypt, to the time 
when the sons of Mil came into Ireland, to wit, Eber and Eremon;  whereanent 
one said -
    
                           Poem No. XII 
    
    
    Four ship's companies strong went Sru out of Egypt.  There were 
twenty-four wedded couples and three hirelings for every ship.  Sru and his 
son Eber Scot, they were the leaders of that voyage. 
    
    The route which they followed was on the Red Sea to the island of 
Taprobane, around the Rhipaean Mountain northward till they reached Scythia, 
and contested in the matter of the princedom of Scythia - that is, the 
progeny of Nel and Nenual, the two sons of Feinius Farsaid.  From that time 
till the time of Refloir son of Noemius and of Mil son of Bile, many battles and 
combats and wars and kin-murders were transacted between them during that 
space, till Mil son of Bile inflicted a mortal wound upon Refloir son of Noemius. 
    
    As for Sru, when he reached Scythia, immediately Nenual grandson of 
Feinius died.  Nenual son of Baath son of Nenual son of Feinius Farsaid took 
the princedom of Scythia.  Now Sru died immediately after Nenual. 
    
    Eber Scot son of Sru took the kingship of Scythia by force from the 
progeny of Nenual son of Feinius, till he fell at the hands of Noemius son of 
Nenual.  Now after the slaying of Eber, there was great contention in the 
matter of the princedom, between Noemius son of Nenual and Boamain son of 
Eber Scot. 
    
    Boamain took the kingship by force of combat from Northern Scythia to 
the shore of the Caspian Sea, till he fell in a battle-ambush at the hands of 
Noemius son of Nenual.  Noemius took the princedom thereafter, till he fell at 
the hands of Ogamain son of Boamain in vengeance for his father.  Ogamain 
took the kingship thereafter till he died in it - that is, in the kingship.  
There was contention in the matter of the princedom during his time, four 
years after that, betwen Refloir s. Refill and Mil s. Bile.  Now Refloir had a 
comely daughter there, whose name was Send d. Refloir;  and Refloir offered 
that maiden to Mil s. Bile.  Mil s. Bile took her, and she was with him in 
loving wise, till she bore him two children;  Airech Februad and Donn were 
their names.  Then it was that Refloir plotted to slay his kinsman, for he 
feared that he would come against him for the kingship.  Tidings thereof came 
to the son of Bile, that is to say, of his kinsman's ploting.  Thereafter he 
himself went to battle, and he and Refloir fought, and he wounded Refloir 
severely and painfully through his thigh - a wound of vindictiveness and of 
death.  The hosts of Scythia felt it a great loss that their lord should be hurt 
and mortally wounded by the son of Bile, and he was expelled out of Scythia;  
so Mil went thereafter, and took his children with him.  Four ships were their 
sea-fleet, fifteen wedded couples in each ship, and an additional unwived 
hireling.  They remained three months in the island of Taprobane.  Other 
three months had they on the sea till they reached Egypt, at the end of one 
thousand three hundred fifty and four years after Partholon took Ireland, and 
at the end of nine hundred and fourteen years after the drowning of Pharao 
Cineris in the Red Sea. 
    
    Pharao Nechtenibus was King of Egypt at that time, as the learned sang 
this quatrain 
    
                           Poem No. XIX 
    
    
    Now King Pharao had a daughter named Scota, and Mil asked for that 
maiden, and Pharao gave her to him;  and that Scota bore two sons to him, 
Amorgen Glungel and Eber their names.  It is then that Alexander, King of the 
world, drove out that Pharao, for he was not submissive to him, and expelled 
him southward, into southern Ethiopia;  and a city was built by Alexander in 
Egypt after he had expelled Pharao, Alexandria its name.  Mil son of Bile 
tarried eight years in Egypt, and twelve men of his followers learnt the 
principal arts:  Segda, Sobairce, and Suirge learnt craftmanship, Mantan, 
Caicher and Fulman learnt druidry;  another three, Gosten, Amorgen, and 
Donn, were arbitratiors and judges.  The other three, Mil, Oici and Uici, were 
warriors.  They nurtured their multiplicity of actions and of accomplishments 
in Egypt. 
    
     Now then Mil perceived that weakness and loss of strength had come 
upon Pharao, and that Alexander was driving him out, he took leave of him;  
by no means from fear, but it had been promised him by druids that he would 
get an estate and a kingdom.  Thereafter Mil went upon the Red Sea - there 
was the same tally as before - and Scota daughter of Pharao with him. 
    
    A great wind came upon them, which carried them eastward in the ocean, 
past India, past Cirord, past Golgardoma, past the estuary of the Ganges, to 
the island of Taprobane, and they landed therein.  They remain within it a 
month.  Thereafter they voyaged past India, past Mount Caucasus from the 
west, past Ithia, past the river Boria, past western Scythia westward, to the 
estuary of the Caspian Sea.  They were in silence for three weeks upon the 
Caspian Sea, by reason of the crooning of the Sirens.  This is the welcomne 
they would make;  they would chant music around their conoes and their 
ships, and the people could not choose but fall asleep thereat.  He who was 
most cunning among them would place molten pitch in their ears, so that they 
should hear naught of the music.  Thereafter they sang music to the followers 
of Mil, till Caicher the Druid rescued them. 
    
    They came into the land of the Amazons, who fought a battle like men 
with them.  This is why they were wont to burn their right breats, that they 
should not hinder their warrior-craft, so that no tyrant should take dominion 
of that country.  Thirty-two tribes were their tally. 
    
    The sons of MIl left the crews of twenty ships of their people there, and 
forty-four companies from that bck to Scythia. 
    
    They came past Albania westward, past the Rhipaean Mountain in the 
north, past Alania, till they settled in Asia.  They stayed a month there.  
Caicher the druid said unto them:  Ye hsall not rest till ye reach Ireland.  
Thereafter they journeyed past Gothia to Germania;  fifty-four tribes was 
their tally when the expedition of the sons of Mil came, and they settled in 
Germania in the East.  Twice eighteen of the soldiers of Thrace came on an 
expedition to the sons of Mil, that is, inspired by the fame of the glory of the 
expedition;  so that they came into a league with the sons of Mil;  and elders 
had promised them that they should attain to a territory along with them, if 
they should themselves take land.  For that reason the Gadeil attacked by 
force the land where the Cruithne are.  Now these soldiers came from Thrace 
into Pict-land.  They sailed thereafter across the river Rhine, past Gallia to 
Belgia, where there are eighteen provinces and a hundred and fifteen cities;  
past the Gulf of Lyons, past Gallia Aquitanica, into southern Spain;  over 
Driuin Sailt into Northern Spain, over the Pyrenees, till they were in the city 
of Breogan.  It was empty before them, and there remained within it thirty of 
their homesteads.  They fought fifty-four battles with the Hispani and the 
Langobardi and the Bacru, and they were all subdued by Mil s. Bile in the 
matter of the title to Spain;  all those battles were fought, till he (Mil) 
obtained the princedom of Spain by force.  Thence was he called Mil of Spain;  
for 'golam' was his first name.  In spain were two sons to Mil born, Eremon 
and Arandan, the two youngest.  The two eldest, Donn and Airech Februa, in 
Scythia were they born, and Seng daughter of Refloir s. Nema was their 
mother.  Colptha, at the Marshes wa he born;  Ir was born on the Thracian 
Sea;  Eber Find and Amorgen in Egypt.  Six of the sons of Mil were born of 
Scota, two of them in Spain;  thereanent spake the poet -
    
                            Poem No. XX 
    
    
    And in that wise was the route of MIl with his people, from Eastern 
Scythia to Egypt, and from Egypt to Spain.  There came a plague, so that 
twelve wedded couples of his people died thereof, including the three kings of 
spain, Mil and Occe and Ucce;  as Cend Faelad saith in the following version -
    
                           Poem No. XIV 
    
    
    Or it may be that this is the beaten track of the Gaedil;  we have left it 
at Ogamain;  and though we have followed on to Mil with his people, it is time 
to return to Ogamain again. 
    
    Refill s. Noemius took the kingdom, till he fell at the hands of Tat s. 
Ogamain.  Thereafter Tat fell at the hand of Refloir s. Refill.  There was a 
contention for the princedom between Refloir s. Refill and Agnomain s. Tat, 
utnil Refloir fell. 
    
    For that reason was the seed of Gaedel driven forth upon the sea, to wit 
Agnomain and Lamfhind his son, so that they were seven years on the sea 
skirting the world on the northern side.  More than can be reckoned or 
related is their adventures,  and there they suffered much of hardship.  The 
reason why the name Lamfhind was givent o the son of Agnomain was, that 
not greater in radiance was a candle than his hands, on the voyage.  They 
had three ships with a coupling between them, that none of them should move 
away from the rest.  They had three chieftains after the death of Agnomain of 
the surface of the Caspian Sea, namely Lamfhind and Allot and Caicher the 
druid. 
    
    This is that Caicher who made a remedy for them, when the Sirens were 
playing them false;  sleep was overcoming them at the music.  This is a 
remedy which Caicher the druid found for them, to melt wax in their ears.  It 
is Caicher who spake when the wind drave them into the ocean, so that they 
suffered much with hunger and thirst there;  till at the end of a week they 
reached a great promontory northward from the Rhipaean Mountain, and in 
that promintory they found a spring with the taste of wine, and they feasted 
there, and were three days and three nights asleep there.  But Caicher the 
druid said:  Rise, said he, we shall not rest until we reach Ireland.  What 
place is 'Ireland?'  Lamfhind son of Agnomain said.  Further than Scythia is 
it, said Caicher the druid;  it is not ourselves who shall reach it, but our 
children, at the end of three hundred years from today. 
    
    Thereafter they settled in the Macotic Marshes. There a son was born to 
Lamfhind, Eber Glunfhind;  that is, white marks were on his knees.  He it is 
who was chieftain after his father.  His grandson was Febri:  His grandson 
was Nuadu. 
    
    Brath s. Death s. Ercha s. Allot s. Nuadu s. Nenual s. Febri Glas s. Agni 
Find s. Eber Glunfhind s. Lamfhind s. Agnomain s. Tat s. Ogamain s. Boamain 
s. Eber Scot s. Sru s. Esru s. Gaedel from whom are the Gaedil.  He it is who 
came out of the Marshes, along the Torrian jSea, to Crete and to Sicily, and 
thereafter they reached Spain.  They took Spain by force. 
    
    As for Agnomain s. Tat, he ws the Gaedil-chieftain who came out of 
Scythia.  He had two sons, Lamfhind and Alloth.  Lamfhind had one son, Eber 
Glunfhind.  Alloth had one son, Eber Dub, at the same time as the sojourn in 
the Marshes.  They had two grandsons in joint rule, Toithecht s. Tetrech s. 
Eber Donn and Nenual s. Febri s. Agnomain s. Eber Glunfhind;  there was also 
Sothecht s. Mantan s. Caicher. 
    
    Four ship's companies strong came the Gaedil to Spain, with seven 
unwived hirelings.  Brath, a ship's company.  Occe and Ucce, two ships' 
companies:  two brethren weree they, the sons of Allot s. Ogamain s. Toithecht 
s. Tetrech s. Eber Dub s. Allot s. Ogamain.  Mantan, a ship's company -  s. 
Caicher s. Ercha s. Coemthecht s. Soithecht s. Mantan s. Caicher the druid qui 
fecit prophetiam s. Eber Echruad s. Tat s. Ogamain. 
    
    They broke three battles after going into Spain;  a battle against the 
Tuscans, a battle against the Langobardi, and a battle against the Barchu.  
There came a plague upon them, so that four and twenty of their number 
died, including Occe and Ucce.  Out of the two ship none escaped, save twice 
five men, including En s. Occe and Un s. Ucce. 
    
    Brath had a good son named Breogan, by whom was built the Tower of 
Breogan and the city which is called Braganza.  From Breogan's Tower was 
Ireland seen on a winter evening, to wit, on Samain evening.  Ith s. Breogan 
saw it, as Gilla Coeman sand the song, 
    
                           Poem No. XIII