Irish mythology - the legendary descent
of the Irish Clans

The Lebor Gabala Erren

The Book of the Taking of Ireland
Book of Leinster 1150 A.D.

Variant Readings from other Sources

Variant Irish Readings - Lebor Gabala Erren
The Scottichronicon - John of Fordun
Historiam Britonum - Nennius
Chronicle of the Picts & Scots - author unknown
The Life of St. Cadroe - Colgan


According to the traditions of the Lebor Gabala Erren (Book of the Taking of Ireland), the Irish originated in Scythia and were descendants of a King Feinius Farsaid, a King of Scythia. This Feinius Farsaid and his son, Nel, went into Asia to work on the Tower of Nimrod (Tower of Babel in biblical history) and were present at the subsequent dispersal of the races after the destruction of the tower. Feinius and his son, both learned in the new languages which resulted from the dispersal, returned to Scythia where Feinius opened a great school of languages on the Scythian plain.

In time his son Nel became such an expert in languages that pharoa of Egypt invited him into his country to teach his people the new languages of the world. So Nel went to Egypt and there he married Scota, pharoa's daughter. After pharoa was drowned in the Red Sea in pursuit of Moses and his band of Hebrews, Nel's great-grandson, Sru, fled from Egypt for fear of persecution by the Egyptians and with his son, Heber Scot, returned to Scythia. There Heber Scot won the kingship of Scythia. After a few generations, a descendant of Heber Scot, named Agnomain, killed a rival for the kingship of Scythia (a kingsman) and in revenge was driven from the country.

With a small band of followers, Agnomain obtained ships and sailed to the Macotic Marshes on the Black Sea, where the Scots (as they had come to be known, from Scota, the wife of Nel) remained for nearly three hundred years. On this journey they received a prophecy from Caicher, their druid, that their descendants would one day reach Ireland. Finally a descendant named Brath led the Scots from the marshes. Again they took to ships and after a long, arduous sea voyage across the Mediterranean Sea, eventually landed on the coast of Spain. On a high mountain on the coast Brath's son, Breogain, built a city named Brigantia famed for its tall tower.

Some years later, Ith, the uncle of King Milesius, saw Ireland from the top of the tower on a cold winter's night.

Ith collected a small fleet and sailed to the island he had glimpsed from the tower in Brigantia. Landing in the north of the island, he immediately encountered the chieftains of the Tuatha de Danann, who were in control of Ireland at the time, having conquered the Fir Bolg, its previous rulers. A battle was fought between them and Ith was slain on the plain of Ith (Magh Ith). His men carried his body back to their ships and the fleet returned to Ireland.

King Milesius was outraged at the death of his uncle and sent his sons, nine in number, to Ireland with a great fleet to avenge his death. On landing in Ireland the sons of King Milesius went inland and there met the kings of the Tuatha de Danann, demananding of them either kingship or battle. The kings of the Tuatha de Danann stalled for time, asking for a week alone on the island before making a decision. To this the sons of King Milesius agreed. They then returned to their ships and sailed a short distance off the coast of Ireland. The treacherous Tuatha de Danann then raised a great druidical storm against the Milesian fleet, which drove them far to the west. They circled the island three times until the storm blew itself out, finally landing in the south of the island. Here they divided their fleet and men, Heber, the oldest son still living (most of the sons of Milesius had been killed in the landing or the storm), remained in the south of Ireland. Heremon, his brother, and the rest of the fleet sailed to the north, where they landed their ships. Coming inland the sons of King Milesius again joined their forces and engaged the Tuatha de Danann in battle, completely routing them and slaying all their leaders.

All of the sons of King Milesius were slain in the conquest of Ireland except for Heber and Heremon. Heber Finn, the son of Ir, survived, as did Lugaidh, the son of Ith. From the three sons of King Milesius to have issue, namely Heber, Ir and Heremon, and from Ith, King Milesius' uncle, are said to descend the great clans and families of Ireland, known as "Milesians," in honor of their great ancestor, King Milesius of Spain.

After conquering the island Heber and Heremon divided Ireland between them. To Heremon went the northern half of the island and there his descendants are mainly to be found to this day, including the northern and southern Ui Neill, King of Meath and Ulster, the Ulaid, the Dal Riada (who later founded the kingdom of (Scotland) and the Kings of Leinster. From Heber are said to descend the tribes and kings of the south of Ireland. Heremon gave a part of his kingdom to Heber Finn, the son of his slain brother, Ir, and from him are said to descend the Knights of the Red Branch in Ulster, Clanna Rory. From Ith, King MIlesius' uncle, are said to descend some of the tribes living in the province of Connacht.


                 Brath led the Scots to Spain)
                 Breogain (Built the city of Brigantia in Spain)
                  |                          |
                  |                          |
                 Lugaidh                    King Milesius of Spain
                                             |         |      | 
                                            Heber     Ir     Heremon

1. Three variants of the Milesian legend are extant in Irish manuscript; The version presented in the preceding pages is a summary of the R1 redaction from the Book of Leinster (Lebor Gabala Erren); published by the Irish Texts Society, 1939. This is actually the less often quoted of the three variants, but is demonstrably the oldest version.

2. The texts which accompany the following Milesian genealogies were taken from Roger O'Ferrall's "Linea Antiqua," circa 1710 (Sir William Betham translation). John O'Hart in his "Irish Pedigrees" also depended heavily on the "Linea Antiqua," but often edited out some of the more racy legends. His genealogy of the McLaughlins of Tirconnell was based on O'Clery's genealogies.

3. The first names in the following pedigree were taken directly from the Old Testament (Book of Genesis), i.e., Adam to Japhet, the son of Noah. The entire pedigree from Japhet to King Milesius of Spain is fictional. King Milesius did not
exist, nor did his sons.

4. According to O'Rahilly (Irish history and Mythology) the true ancestor figure of the northern Gaedil (i.e., line of Heremon) was Tuathal Teachtmar (81). The earliest figure
in the pedigrees most historians and genealogists agree was strictly historical, however, was Nial Naoighiallach (of the Nine Hostages-91).

Milesian Genealogies

1. Adam
2. Seth
3. Enos
4. Cainan
5. Mahalaleel
6. Jared
7. Enoch
8. Methuselah
9. Lamech
10. Noah
11. Japhet
12. Gomer
13. Baath
14. Feinius Farsaid, King of Scythia
15. Nel (m. Scota, d. of Pharoah)
16. Gaedel Glas
17. Esru
18. Sru (returned to Scythia)
19. Heber Scot
20. Boamain
21. Ogamain
22. Tat
23. Agnomain (driven from Scythia; settled in the Macotic Marshes)
24. Lamfhind
25. Eber Glunfhind
26. Agni
27. Febri Glas
28. Nenual
29. Nuada
30. Allot
31. Ercha
32. Death
33. Brath (Led the Gaedel from the Macotic Marshes to Spain)
34. Breogain (Built the city of Brigantia)
35. Bille
36. King Milesius of Spain


The Legendary Descent of the
McLaughlins of Tirconnell


Text from Roger O'Ferrall's "Linea Antiqua"
ca. 1710
(As it appeared in Sir William Betham's
37. Heremon, seventh son of Milesius, youngest but the third son who left any issue, after the conquest and division of Ireland, as before is set forth, became the first king or monarch then and reigned jointly with his eldest brother, Heber, for one year, at the end whereof a quarrell happening between them occasioned by their ambitious wives, as aforesaid, Heber was slain at the battle of Geishill, after whose death Heremon reigned alone 14 years, in which time a certain colony called by the Irish Cruithin, in English Picts, arrived in Ireland and desired of Heremon to assign them a part of the country to settle in, which he refused; but as regards they had no women along with them, Heremon gave them for wifes the widows of those that were slain in the wars between them and the Tuatha de Danann and sent them with a strong party of his own forces to conquer the country then called Albion (now Scotland); conditionally that they and their posterity should be tributary to the Monarchs of Ireland, which having been affected, Cathluan, their leader, became the first of 69 kings that reigned after him in Scotland, until they were totally destroyed and extirpated by Fergus, the King of the Irish Scots in Dal Riada or Argyle, Scotland. Heremon died A.M. 2752 and was succeeded by three of his four sons, until one of them died and the other two were overcome and slain in the battle of Ard Ladran, by Heber's four sons in revenge of their father's death. And they again after half a year's joint reign, were slain by Irial Faidh, a prophet and youngest son of Heremon, who therefor became the 10th Monarch of Ireland, for ten years, during which time he cleared a grat part of the country from forests, destroyed the remainder of the Tuatha De Danann and foiled in many battles the offspring of Heber, and died A.M. 2766.

38. Irial Faidh, his son. Note from this Eurialus or Irial Faidh, to Ugaine Mor, the 21st generation down from him, no branches spread from this line, for ought appearing in the old Irish records; or if any were they either died without issue or were slain in the continued feuds and wars between them and the descendants of the two other brothers, Heber and Ir.

39. Eitreol, succeeded his father Irial in the monarchy for 20 years, fought many battles with the Heberian sept till he lost his life by Conmaol, his Hibernian successor, A.M. 2786.

40. Follach, his son.

41. Tighearnmhas, his son, the 13 Monarch of Ireland; fought the Hibernian sept and his followers in 27 battles and fell after 77 years' reign; he died and two thirds of the people of Ireland died or were slain by demons in one night at Magh Bleaght, i.e., the field of adoration, in the county now called the County of Leitrim, adoring their false gods, A.M. 2787. He was the first that found out and made use of gold mines in Ireland and ordained seven sets of colors in the wearing apparrell of his subjects, to distinguish their degrees so that every man's degree, trade, occupation or calling from the Prince to the peasant was known by their clothes.

42. Eanbhoth, his son.

43. Smionghall, his son.

44.Fiachaidh Labhrainne, his son, the 18th Monarch of Ireland, 24 years, slain in the battle of Belgadain by Eochaidh Mumho, his Hibernian successor, A.M. 2954.

45.Aonghus Olmucaidh, his son, the 21st Monarch of Ireland, 18 years; About this time the Picts of Albion growing stubborn and refractory in the payment of the tribute imposed upon them by Heremon, 250 years before, this Aonghus went into Albion or Scotland with a strong army and in fifty set battles overcame and forced them to a submission to the old tribute; Wherewith and the glory of having subdued them, he returned contented and was after slain in the Battle of Carman by Eunius Airgtheach, his Hiberian successor, A.M. 2993.

46. Maon, his son.

47. Rotheachtaigh, his son, the two and twentieth Monarch of Ireland, slain in the Battle of Rath Croghan, A.M. 3025, by Sednius, his successor of the progeny of Ir.

48. Dian, his son.

49. Siorna Saoghlach, his son, the 34th Monarch of Ireland, lived 250 years, where he reigned 150 years and was slain in the Battle of Ailinn, A.M. 3155, by Rotheacht the Second, his Hiberian successor.

50. Oilill Olchaoin, his son. 51. Giallchadh, his son, the 37th Monarch of Ireland, 9 years, slain in the Battle of Magh Muadh by Art Imleach, his Hiberian successor, A.M. 3250.
52. Nuadha Fionn Fail, his son, the 39th Monarch of Ireland, 40 years, slain by his Hiberian successor, Breas rioghachta, A.M. 3293.

53. Aodhan Glas, his son.

54. Simeon Breac, his son; having overcome and taken prisoner the Hiberian Monarch, Sedneus the Second, caused his limbs to be drawn asunder by wild horses and became the 44th Monarch of Ireland; but after 6 years' reign, was foiled in battle, taken prisoner and served in the very same manner by the predacessor's son, A.M. 3345.

55. Muireadhach Bolgrach, his son, the 46th Monarch of Ireland, one year, some say four years, slain by his Hiberian successor, Eadhna Dearg, A.M. 3307.

56. Fiachaidh Tolgrach, his son, the 55th Monarch of Ireland, 10 years, slain in the Battle of Borin, by Ailill Fionn, his Hiberian successor, A.M. 3441; he had an elder brother, Duach Teamrach, whose two sons, Eochaidh Framhuine and Conang Baeg- saglach, the 51st and 50th Monarchs of Ireland.

57. Duach Ladhghrach, his son, the 59th Monarch of Ireland, 10 years, slain by his successor, A.M. 3490. 58. Eochaidh Buadhach, his son.

59. Ughaine Mor, his son, the 66th Monarch of Ireland, 40 years; he had 22 sons and three daughters by Cesssair, the daughter of the King of France, who being all come to years and each of them having a great retinue of men and many followers, were very oppressive to the whole kingdom by their coisherings and progresses up and down amoung the subjects; successively one after another, where one of them with his gang would be this night and another would be the next night following, and so continue till they ate up and destroyed all those provisions; which being represented to the Monarch a great grievance, he to provide a remedy for the future divided his kingdom into five and twenty, allotting to each son and daughter their part without encroaching on one antoehr. All the sons died without issue but two, Laeghaire Lorc, ancestor to all the Leinster Heremonians and Caobthach Coel Broeg, from whom the Heremonians of Leath Cuinn, West Meath, Ulster and Connacht derive their pedigrees. The first of these two sons became so great and powerful that the contention and strife hitherto between them and the issue of the two elder brothers of Heremon, Heber and Ir, was totally laid aside, and from hence downward bloodily and inhumanly maintained and upheld without the greatest violence between these two brothers, and their issue, killing, murdering and destroying one another, not admitting any of the other two septs to come into play except now and then (and that very seldom), one or another of them would by chance step in between them for a second; and to a prologue to this wayward play this Ughaine, after 40 years reign, A.M. 3646, was murdered by his own brother, Badhbhchadh, whereby he made himself Monarch, which he enjoyed but three hours, when he was murdered by his nephew Laeghaire, called from the murder "Lorc," i.e., murderer. The eldest son of Ughaine Mor, to avenge his father's death and to gain the Monarchy which he held but two years, when he and his son, Ailill Aine, were both murdered by his younger brother, Cabthach Coel Breag. Although order requires to give precedence to the elder brother and his issue, yet the Irish Chronicles begin with the younger (likely by reason that his issue was the most powerful and were Monarchs of Ireland, successively, for the most part.

60. Cobthach Coel Breag, second son of Ughaine Mor, after the murder of his brother and nephew as before is said, became the 69th Monarch of Ireland for 50 (others say 30) years and then was slain at his regal city of Teamhair, A.M. 3648, by Labraidh Loingsech, his brother's second son, in revenge of his father's and grandfather's murders.

61. Meilge Molbhthach, his son, the 71st Monarch of Ireland, 17 years, at the end thereof he was slain in the Battle of Clare by Maoib, the former Monarch, A.M. 3643.

62. Iarraingleo Fathach, his son, by the death of his predacessor, his son, slain in battle became the 74th Monarch of Ireland; was slain in battle in the 7th year of his reign, A.M. 3705, by Fearchorb, his successor.

63. Connla Cruiaidhchealgach, his son, the 76th Monarch of Ireland, 20 years, and then died a natural death (a rare thing for a Monarch of Ireland), A.M. 3780.

64.Ailill Caisfhiachlach. Succeeded his father, the 77th Monarch of Ireland and at the end of 25 years' reign, was slain by his successor, Adhamhar, A.M. 3765.

65. Eochaidh Ailtleathair, his son; slew Adhamhar in battle and became the 79th Monarch of Ireland and in the 17th year of his reign, A.M. 3750, was slain by his successor, Fergus Fortamail.

66. Aonghus Tuirbheach Teamhrach, his son; by the death of Fergus, his predacessor, whom he slew in battle, recovered the throne and was the 81st Monarch of Ireland, 60 years (others say but 30 years), and died at Teamhair, A.M. 3808. He had two sons, Enna and Fiachu Firmara,the last so called for being begotten by the father upon his own daughter; and ashamed of the incestuous relations, as soon as he was born, cursed him to be enclosed in a closed basket or box, with rich clothes and many jewels and was thrown onto the sea and after some time was found alive by fishermen in their nets who sent him to be nursed and reared up to a man's estate; by which time he was known, by some of the jewels enclosed in the box, and exposed to sale by the fishermen to relieve their neccessitires and brought home to his father. From him descended the Kings of Dal Riada and Argyle in Scotland; and Fergus the Great, the first king of Scotland, by his mother, Earca, daughter of Loarn, King of Dal Riada as hereafter more at large. The said Enna also had a brother, Edersceol Teamrach, whose son Conall Collamhrach succeeded him in the Monarchy for five years.

67. Eanna Aighneach, by others called Eanna Airghtheach, eldest son of Aonghus, was the 66th Monarch of Ireland and in the 20th year of his reign was slain in battle by his successor Criomthann Cusgrach, A.M. 3863.

68. Labhraid Lorc, his son.

69. Beothachtach, his son.

70. Blathachtach, his son.

71. Easoman of Eamhain, his son.

72. Roighen Ruadh, his son.

73. Fionnlogh, his son.

74. Fionn, his son. During the lives of these, from the death of Eanna, the Monarchy was held by the other two septs of Heber and Ir, called also Clanna Ruadhri, for 160 years, under seven monarchs, whereof four were of the sept of Ir, until the last of the seven, Tachna Tathlioch, was slain by Eochaidh Feidlioch.

75. Eochaidh Feidhleach, son of Fionn, the 93rd Monarch of Ireland, 12 years, died at his royal city of Teamhair, A.M. 3966. You have seen before how Ughaine Mor, the 66th Monarch of Ireland, divided the kingdom into 25 parts, and the reason of it which although the occasion was long since removed, yet the division continued ever after about 450 years, until this Monarch abrogated the same and ordained that the old division made by the Fir Bolgian dynasty long before the Milesian sept came into Ireland, should continue for the future, that is, into five parts, i.e., two Munsters, Leinster, Connacht and Ulster; and so it remains ever since only that some time after the reign of Tuathal Teachtmar, the 106th Monarch, an outward skirt of the border of each province was cut off the the demesne lands of the royal city of Teamhair, for the maintenance of the Monarchs and was called Meath, now called East of West Meath; this Monarch ahd a brother called Eochaidh Teareach, who succeeded him in the Monarchy and was burnt by lightening at Teamhair in West Meath. He also had three sons, Bress, Nar and Lothar, born of a single birth, and were called in Irish the Fineamhas, i.e., the three vine ranches; two daughters, called in Irish Medb, Queen of Connacht to whom Fergus Mor, King of Ulster (being deprived of his kingdom by his cousin Conchobar), relied and on her begot three sons born of a birth named Siar, Corc and ConMac, ancestor to many ancient families. His other daughter was named Clotherne, who was debauched by her own brothers, who in a drunken fit lay with her, all three, the product of which union was a son named Lugaidh, who had (a strange thing to be told) a red circle about his neck and another about his middle. To distinguish each brother's proportion of him, the head and face resembling Bress; the middle part between the two circles, Nar; and thence downward resembling the thired brother, Lothar. For which he has the nickname of Sriabh ndearg, i.e., red circled. Whether it was on account of this incest or how otherwise is not related in the Chronicles, that the sons fell in disgrace with the Lothar with whom they rebelled; the three of them were slain at the memorable battle of Dram-ouach now called Dromcue in West Meath. They all lost their lives by Feidlioch, from whom they received life, which he lamented so much that it broke his heart and soon after died and was nicknamed Feidlioch, signifiying long or constant sighing, which he never gave over as long as he lived afterward.

76. The Three Finneamhnas (Bress, Nar and Lothar). the three sons of Eochaidh named in the Chronicles to have been on their own sister begot.

77. Lughaidh Sriabh nDearg, the 98th Monarch of Ireland; his married wife was Devorgill, daughter of the King of Denmark, by whom we cannot find he had any issue. But it is certainly testified that he folowing the wicked example of his parents, did beget on his own mother and their sister Clotherne, a son called Criomthann, nicknamed Niadh-Nar, as being ashamed of his incestuous birth, which the word Niah-Nar signifies to verify the truth of those unnatural births. The following dislikes are presented in the Chronicle: Lughaidh red-strake father was and brother to Criomthann Niadh-Nar by Clotherne the mother who likewise known to ye brothers third Grandmother to her son may be called This Lughaidh after 26 years killed himself by falling upon his own sword, A.M. 5191.

78. Criommthann Niadh Nar was the 100th Monarch of Ireland and in the 7th (some say 12th) year of his reign, 16 years, our savior Jesus Christ was born. He died from a fall from his horse, A.M. 5208, and was succeeded by:

79. Fearadach Fionn Feachtnach, his son, the 102nd Moanrch of Ireland, 22 years, died at his regal city of Teamhair, A.D. 36. He was a just and truthful Prince and caused truth and justice to be functionally observed and administered during his whole reign, for which he was nicknamed Fionn-Fiatach, signifying in Irish, truth and integrity. It was in his time that the famous and upright judge Maon flourished, who had a chain hasp or ring of such rare virtue that when it was put about the neck of any judge or any witness, whatsoever, at the time the one was to give sentence or the other to expose an oath, if either swerved a little from the right then presently it clasped and wrung them so close, that to avoid present death by strangling they retracted openly before all the spectators what they had so unkindly done amiss; whence procceded that Irish proverbial wish amoung the Irish that he had Maon's Ring about his neck when they suspect the truth or intregity of any person.

80. Fiachaidh Fionnolaidh, his son, the 104th Monarch of Ireland, 17 years; Eithne, daughter of the King of Scotland was his wife. He with three provincial kings and most of the nobility and gentry of Ireland were treacherously murdered by the Plebians and commonality of the kingdom at a feast by them for that purpose; but the Queen then big with child narrowly escaped, fled into Scotland to her father where she was delivered of a son named Tuathal; Where she contined with him for 25 years. In the meantime the Plebians after the slaughter and attainder of the Monarch, nobility and gentry, set up a king of their own tribe, a stranger named Cairbre Cean-Cait, i.e., of the Danish race; the only king of a stranger that ruled Ireland since the Milesians first arrived there.

81. Tuathal Teachtmhar, son of Fiachu, born in Scotland as aforesaid, when he came to age got together his friends, and with what aid his grandfather, the King of Scotland, gave him came into Ireland and having fought and overcome his enemies in 25 battles in Ulster, 25 in Leinster, as many in Connacht and 25 in Munster; and having thus totally subdued the Plebian rebels and restored both the country gentry to their estates and the true royal blood and heirs to their respective kingdoms, he thought fit to take as he accordingly did with their consent from each of the four divisions or provinces of Munster, Leinster, Connacht and Ulster, a considerable tract of ground which was the next adjoining to Uisnech, one east, another west, a third south and the fourth on the north of it and appointed all four under the name of Meath, now the counties of East and West Meath; to belong forever to the Monarch's own demesne for the maintenance of his table; on each of which several portions he built a royal palace for himself and his heirs and successors, viz., Hachtgha on that of Munster side; Tailten on Ulster; another at Tarach on Leinster portion and the fourth on the west Uisnech taken from Connacht. By way of which portions the Monarch ordained a certain Chiefry or tribute to be yearly paid to the provincial kings from whose provinces the said portions were taken, which may be seen at large in the Chronicles. It was the Monarch That imposed the great and insupplantable fine of 1,000 beeves or bulls, as many fat muttons, Hoggs, 6,000 Mantles, 5,000 ounces of silver and 12 (others have 6,000) cauldrons or frals of 10 cnfs, to be paid every second year by the Province of Leinster to the Monarchs of Ireland for ever, for the death of his only two daughters, Eithne and Darine, which happened thus: Aonghus Ainchille, King of Leinster, having in the time of Paganism married Darine and within a short time after visiting his father-in-law, made him believe that Darine was dead and prayed that for the greater strengthening of their friendship, he might have his other daughter, Eithne, to wife, which by much entreaty he obliged. She was so soon brought home by him to his own house, then seeing her sister alive and thereby finding herself abused, not only she through extremity of shame seizing her presently fell down dead in that place; but Darine, through excess of grief, breathed out her last upon her sister's corpse in the very same place. Which, coming to the Monarchy, their father's knowledge, did so enrage him that going to Leinster with a mighty force to destroy all the province with fire and sword which the poor innocent people not able to withstand, were forced to submit to the great, heavy fine you have heard, which was punctually taken and exacted some time by fire and sword during the reigns of 40 Monarchs of Ireland, upwards of 600 years, until at last remitted by Finachta Headhat, the 155th Monarch of Ireland and 26th Christian Monarch at the request and earnest solicitation of St. Moling. This Monarch, the 106th of Ireland, at the end of 30 years' reign, was slain by his successor, Mal, son of Rochroidhe, A.D. 106.
82. Feidhlimidh Reachtmhar, so called as being a great maker of excellent, wholesome laws, amoung which he established with all firmness that of retalliation, kept to it most inviolably, and by that means preserved the people in peace, quiet, plenty and security during his time. He was the son of Tuathal and the 109th Monarch of Ireland, 9 years, and after all his pomp and greetings, died of thirst, A.D. 119.

83. Conn Ceadchathach (of the Hundred Battles), so called from hundreds of battles fought by him and won, viz., 60 battles against Cahaer Mor, King of Leinster and the 109th Monarch of Ireland, whom he slew and succeeded, the 110th Monarch of Ireland; 100 battles against the Ulstermen and 100 more in Munster against Mugh Nuadhat, their king, who notwithstanding forced the said Conn to an equal division of the kingdom with him. He had two bloody aspiring brothers, Eochaid Fionn and Fiacha Suidhe, who to make way for themselves, murdered two of their brother's sons, Conla and Crioma, but were by the third son, Art Eanfhear, banished first into Leinster and then into Munster, where they lived near Cashel. From Eochaidh Fionn descended O'Nolan of Foharta in Lease and the great St. Bridget; from Fiachu Suidhe, O'Dolan, O'Bric of Dunbrick, and O'Faolan of Dun Faelan near Cashel. He reigned 35 years, and then was by a strategem treacherously slain by the king of Ulster, A.D. 157.

84. Art Aoinfhear, his son, the 113th Monarch of Ireland; he had two sisters, Serad, who was the wife of Conchobar, the 111th Monarch of Ireland, by whom she had three sons called the three Carbreys, viz., Carbrey alias Eochaid Riada, a quo Dal Riada in Scotland; Carbrey Bascon and Carbrey aliase Muscry. Sabina or Sadhbh was the wife of Marnicel, the King of Munster, of the sept of Lughaidh, son of Ith, the first discoverer of Ireland, by whom she had a son called MacCon and by her second husband, Oilill Olom, she had nine sons of whereof, were slain by their half-brother, MacCon, in the famous Battle of Magh Mucroimhe, where also the Monarch fell siding with his brother-in-law Oilill, against the said MacCon, after his reign of 30 years, A.D. 195.

85. Cormac Ulfhada, or long beard, son of Art, the 115th Monarch of Ireland, and the wisest, most learned and best of any that ruled the Kingdom of the Milesian race before him. He ordained very good laws, wrote sefveral learned treatises, amoung which his treatise of Kingly government dictated to his son Carbre is yet extant and extraordinary. He was very magnificent in his housekeeping and attendants, having always 1150 persons in his daily retinue constantly attending at his great hall in Teamhair, which was 300 foot long, 30 cubits high and 50 cubits broad, with 14 doors to it. His daily service of plate, flagons, drinking cups of gold, silver and precious stone, at his table, ordinarily consisted of 150 pieces, besides dishes, etc., which were all pure silver or gold. He ordained that 10 choice persons should constantly attended him and his successors, Monarchs of Ireland, never to be separate or absent form him, viz., 1) a nobleman to be his companion 2) a judge to deliver and explain the laws of the country in the king's presence upon all occasions 3) an antiquary or historiographer to declare and preserve his genealogies, acts and occurances of the nobility and gentry from time to time as occasion required 4) a druid or magician to offer sacrifice and presage good or bad omens, as his learning, skill or knowledge will enable him 5) a poet to praise or dispraise everyone according to his good or bad actions 6) a physician to administer physick to the King and Queen and to the rest of the family 7) a musician to make music and song, pleasant sonnets in the King's presence when thereto disposed; and 8) three stewarts to govern the King's house in all things appurtaining thereto. This custom was observed by all the succeeding monarchs down from Cormac without any alteration, only that since they received the Christian faith they changed the druid or magician for a Prelate of the church. What is besides delivered from antiquity of this great Monarch is that which amoung the truly wise is more valuable than any worldly magnificence or secular glory whatsoever. He was to all mankind very just and so upright in his actions, judgments and laws that God revealed unto him the light of his faith, seven years before his death and from thence forward refused his druids to worship their idol gods, and openly professed he would no more worship any but the true God of the Universe, the immortal and invisible King of Ages. Whereupon those priests of druids sought his destruction, which they soon after effected (God permitting it) by their necromantical adjurations and ministry of damned spirits from hell; choking him as he sat at dinner eating salmon, some say by a bone of the fish sticking in his throat, A.D. 266, after he had reigned 40 years. He had three sons, Darius, Cairbre and Ceallach, but no issue is recorded from any but Cairbre. He had also ten daughters, but no account of them, only two, Grace or Grania and Ailbhe, who were both successively the wives of the grand champion and general of the Irish Militia, Finn, the son of Cubhall.

86.Cairbre Lifiochair, so called by his being nursed at the side of the River Liffy, son of Cormac and the 117th Monarch of Ireland; his mother was Eithne, daughter of Dunlong, King of Leinster, and after 17 years' reign was slain at the Battle of Gawra, A.D. 284, fought by the Militia of Ireland called Fianna Erionn, arising from a quarrell which happened between them; wherein the Monarch taking part with one side against the other lost his life.

87. Fiachaidh Sraibhthine, his son, the 120th Monarch of Ireland; had a brother, Eochaidh Dublein, father of the three Collas, Colla Uais, Colla Meann and Colla Da Chrioch, by whom their uncle was slain in the Battle of Dubhormar, A.D. 327, after 37 years' reign to make way for the elder brother who succeeded in the monarchy for four years.

88. Muireadhach Tireach, son of Fiachu, having fought and defeated Colla Uais after four years' reign and banished him and his two brothers into Scotland, became the 123rd Monarch of Ireland for 30 years. Soon after his ascension to the crown, he received his cousins the three Collas into favor, and sent them with a great army into Ulster to revenge an afront put upon their great-grandfather, the before-named Cormac, by Fergus Dubh, the King of Ulster, who not only came between Cormac and the Monarchy but also caused his beard to be burned. Some say it happened accidentally, with the snuff of a candle; and under pretense of this supposed affront, whether designedly or accidentally happening, the Collas entered the country and in seven battles fought in one week overthrew the natives, slew their king, sacked, burned and destroyed the royal city of Eamhain, thereby possessing themselves of a great part of the country whence they and some of their posterity remain to this day. From these three brothers descended many noble families in Ireland and Scotland as hereafter shall be seen more at large. This Monarch was at last slain in the Battle of Dubhall, by his Irian successor, A.D. 357.

89. Eochaidh Muighmheadhoin, son of Muireadhach, having slain his Irian predacessor, became the 124th Monarch of Ireland, and in the 8th year of his reign, his accidental death at Teamhair, A.D. 365, leaving issue, by his two marriages, four sons, viz., by his first wife, Mong Fionn, daughter of Fiachach and sister of Criomthann, now King of Munster, and successor to Eochaidh in the Monarchy, by name, Brian. Who notwithstanding that she lost her own life by drinking of the same cup to her brother to avoid suspicion; yet failed of her expectations for the said Brian and her other three sons, Eochaidh Fiachra, Ailill and Fergus. Whether out of horror of the mother's inhumanity in poisoning her brother, or otherwise is not known, were all laid aside and the youngest son of Eochaidh by his second wife, Carinna, daughter to the King of Britain, succeeded to the Monarchy before them. From Brian the oldest son as aforesaid are descended the kings, noblility and gentry of Connacht, of whom and the issue of his three other brothers more hereafter.

90. Nial Naoighiallach, youngest and only son of Eochaidh by the second wife, as aforesaid, succeeded Criomthainn and was the 126th monarch of Ireland. Was a stout, wise and warlike prince and fortunate in all his conquests and achievements and therefore called great; He was also called Niall Naoighiallach, i.e., Nial of the Nine Hostages, from the hostages taken from the nine several counties by him subdued and made tributary, viz., Munster, Leinster, Connacht, Ulster, the Britons, the Picts, the Saxons and the Morini, a people of Gaul towards Calais and Picardy; From whence he marched with his victorious army of Irish Scots, Picts and Britons further into Gaul in order to the conquest thereof; and encamping at the River Loire, was treacherously slain as he sat by the riverside by Eochaidh, King of Leinster, in revenge of a former wrong by him received from the said Niall,A.D. 405. And in the 27th year of his reign St. Patrick was first brought into Ireland at the age of 16 years, amoung 200 children brought by the armyout of Little Brittany, called Armorica, in Gaul. He was the first that gave the name of Scotia Minor to Scotland and ordained it to be called so ever after, till then (and still by the Irish) called Albion.

91. Eoghan or Owen,one of the sons of the said Nial Mor, from whom the territory of Inis-Eoghan in Ulster was called, had eleven brothers, viz, Laoguire, the 128th Monarch of Ireland; in the 4th year of whose reign St.Patrick came into Ireland the second time to plant the Christian faith, A.D.432. 2) Conal Cremthainn, ancestor the the O'Melaghlin kings of Meath; 3) Conal Gulban, ancestor to the O'Donnells, Lords and Earls of the territory of Tirconnell in Ulster, so called from him; 4) Fiachu, from whom the from Birr to the Hill of Uisneach in Medio Hibernica (Meath) is called; Cinel Fiacha and from him MacGeoghegan, Lords of that territory; O'Molloey, O'Donechar, etc., derive their pedigree; 5) Maine, whose patrimony was all the tract of land from Loch Ree to Loch Annin, near Molingar, and whose descendants are Muinter Tagan, that is, Sionnach, now called Fox, Lords of that territory of Muinter Tagan; MacGawley of Cabry, O'Dugan and O'Mulchoney,the prime antiquaries of Ireland; 6) Cairbre, ancestor of O'Flannagan of Tuath-Ratha, Muinter Cathalan or Cahill; 7) Fergus, a quo Cinel Fergusa; 8) Enna 9) Aongus 10) Aulthearg and 11) Fergus Ailtleathan. Of the last four I find no issue; of the rest of them and their issue more in due place.

92. Muireadhach, son of Eoghan, had nine brothers, viz., 1) Ailill 2) Fergus 3) Felim 4) Eochaidh Binneach 5) Cormac 6) Aongus 7) Dallan 8) Iallaun and 9) Dechin; of which Fergus, ancestor to O'Conor of Magh-Ith; Eochaidh Binneach, a quo Cinel Binne in Scotland; and Felim, a quo O Dibhdiorma, more of which hereafter. The said Muireadach had many sons, but two especially by his married wife, Earca, daughter of Loarn, King of the Dal Riata in Scotland, Muirchertach Mor and Fergus Mor, both called Mac Earca, or the sons of Earca, their mother. Whether anymore of thesons was by the said Earca is not set down.

93. Muirchertach Mac Earca, eldest son of Muireadhach, foresaid, the 131st Monarch of Ireland, reigned 24 years and died naturally in his bed, which was rare amoung the Irish monarchs in those days, says Keating, but others contradict him and say he was burnt in a house after being drowned in wine (perhaps meaning he was drunk) on all-holantide Eve, A.D. 527. It was in the 20th year of his predacessor's reign that his brother Fergus Mor, with five more of his brothers, viz., Fergus Mor, two more named Loarn and two named Aongus, with a complete army went into Scotland to assist his grandfather King Loarn, much afflicted by his enemies the Picts; who in several battles and engagements, were vanquished and overcome by Fergus and his party; who prosecuted the war so vigorously and followed the enemy to their own homes and reduced them to such extremity that they were glad to accept peace upon the conquerer's own conditions; whereupon the king's death, which happened about the same time, the said Fergus was unanimously elected or chosen as king, as being of the blood royal, by his mother; and the said Fergus, for a good and lucky omen, sent to his brother, then monarch of Ireland, for the marble chair called Liath-Fail or Cloch-na-cinnemhna, the latter importing in English "stone of destiny or fortune," to be crowned thereon; which fell out accordingly, for as he was the first absolute king of all Scotland of the Milesian race, so the succession contined in his blood and lineage ever since to this day as is partly hinted before and more fully shall appear in due place; this Muirchertach had four other brothers besides the six already named, viz., Forrach, ancestor to Mac Tathmaol Tigernach, a quo O Cunigan or Cunningham; Mongan, a quo O Croidhen and O Dunely; Dalagh, a quo O Daly and Moan or Maine. Note: this is incorrect. The Fergus Mor who settled in Scotland was not the brother of Muirchertach Mac Earca. See pedigree of the Kings of Dal Riada. This error (also in Keating's History) apparantly arose because of confusion between Earca, the mother of Muirchertach Mac Earca and Eirc or Erc, the father of the Fergus Mor who settled in Scotland, by legend accompanied by his brothers Loarn and Aongus. Earca, the mother of Muirchertach, was the daughter of Loarn, brother of this Fergus Mor, son of Erc, King of the Dal Riada in Ireland.

94. Domhnall Ilchealgach, i.e., the deceitful, son of Muirchertach, the 134th Monarch of Ireland, reigned jointly with his brother Fergus, 3 years, and died of the plague, both in one day, A.D. 561. They had three other brothers, Boadan, the 137th Monarch of Ireland, Niall and Scanlan.

95. Aodh Uaridhrach, his son, the 143rd Monarch of Ireland, 7 years, slain in the battle of Atha-da-facla, A.D. 607. He had an older brother Eochu who was the 136th Monarch of Ireland and was slain by Cronan, King of Connacht, A.D. 563.
96. Maolfrithich, his son 96. Maoldoon, his son. Had a brother Maoltuide, a quo O'Maoltuly.

97. Fergal Mac Maolduin, his son, the 156th Monarch of Ireland, 10 years, slain in the battle of Allon by Moroch, King of Leinster, A.D. 718. He had a brother Adain, a quo the Dalyes of Leath-Cuinn.

98. Niall Frasach, i.e., of the showers, so called from three wonderful showers that fell in his time in three different places in Ireland. The first, a shower of honey, in Fathan- beg; the second, a shower of silver in Fathan-Mor; the third, a shower of blood in Magh-laghen. So says Keating, wherein other authors differ, who say the first shower was of silver, the second of honey and the third of wheat, and describe the miraculous occasion of the said showers as followeth: In that monarch's reign there was an extraordinary famine throughout all the kingdom and the king being one night at supper, with seven revered Bishops in his company, all the lights in the room accidentally expired and when new lights were brought the king perceived the table and dishes all bloody; and inquiring the cause thereof the Bishops ingeniously confessed that they being very hungry while they were in the dark, cut one another shouting who should have most of the meat, either to satisfy their present hunger or to put up and reserve for another time. Whereat the king, a just, pious and religious Prince, was moved with pity, considering what a sad condition the generality of the nation was in seeing the Rev. Prelates reduced to that extremity. Whereupon he immediately made a vow never to eat more until God in his infinite mercy were graciously pleased to deliver the people in their great distress. And thereupon desired the Prelates to join with him in fasting and prayer that the Lord would mercifully withdraw his wrath from the nation. And to that end they all went to the King's oratory, where they continued 24 hours. A messenger came to the King to tell him of a great shower of silver which had fallen in the fields of Fathan-beg; which, when the King heard he bemoaned that silver was of no avail to the poor people when victuals could not be had for it; and entreated the Bishops to continue their devotions, which, having done 24 hours more, news came to the King of a great shower of honey that dropped in the fields of Fathan-mor. Whereat the King bemoaned the second time saying that honey was of little avail as silver in regard that if the people in their hungry, starving condition did eat thereof they would swell up and die. And thereupon renewed their earnest supplications which they contined 24 hours longer. At the end thereof the King had notice that God was pleased to shower down a vast quantity of wheat in the fields of Magh-laighen, which the King ordered to be gathered up and distributed amoung the people of the whole nation and thereby relieved them from the famine. And the King in thankful acknowledgment of God's great mercy and favor wooed at that time, immediately, after his reign of 7 years, laid down his crown and kingdom to his next successor and retired into Scotland and exchanged his royal diadem and robes for a monk's cowle and habit in St. Columba's Monastery of Iona, A.D. 765; where he spent 8 years wholly devoting himself to works of piety and Christian repentence, being a great penitent, and dying a holy saint, A.D. 773. He was the 162nd Monarch of Ireland and had three brothers, Conor, ancestor of O'Cahan; Hugh Allan, a quo O'Brain and Colea, a quo Clan Colean.

99. Aodh Oirnidhe, son of Niall Frasach, the 164th Monarch of Ireland, after 25 years' reign, was slain in the battle of Fearta, A.D. 817. Others say he died a great penitent at a place called Athada-Fearta. He had four brothers, Colman, a quo Clan Colman; Fearchar, from whom are Clan Fearchar; Cuana, a quo Muitnir Clunbro and Muirchertach, a quo Clan Muriarty of Loch-Eanach. In his reign such prodigeous thunder and lightening happened that killed many men, women and children over all the kingdom and particularly in a nook of the country between Coreavaghan and the sea in Munster. 1010 persons were destroyed thereby and many other prodigies, the forerunner of the Danish invasion which soon after followed.

100. Niall Caille, so called after his death from the River Caillen, where he was drowned after 13 years' reign, A.D. 844, the 166th Monarch of Ireland. He fought many battles with the Danes and Norwegians, in most of which, although the Danes were wasted, yet continual supplies pouring into them made them very formidable. For this reason they and fortified Dublin and other strong places upon the sea banks. He had three brothers, Mailduin, a quo Siol Muldoon; Fogartach, quo Muintir Con-sidhe, or King; and Blathmac of Dubheana.

101. Aodh Finnlaith, i.e., hoary, son of Niall Caille, the 168th Monarch of Ireland, 16 years, in which time he fought and defeated the Danes in several battles and was worsted in others and died at Deom-Enesclaun, A.D.876. He had four brothers, Dubhiontagh (O'Dubhionnachta); Aongus,a quo Clanongusa; Flahertach, a quo O'Hualby and Brian Oge, a quo Clan Braoin of Magh-Ith. He married Maoilmuire, or Mary, daughter of Kenneth, son of Alpin, both kings of Scotland, by whom he had issue. 102. Niall Glundubh, i.e., black-knee, the 170th Monarch of I reland, for three years, had many conflicts with the Danes, wherein most commonly he had the better, at last making up a great army in order to besiege Dublin. A battle was fought between them wherein the Monarch lost his life, and after a great slaughter on both sides, his army routed, A.D. 917. From him the surname O'Neill or Clanna Neill took beginning. He had a brother Domnall, King of Aileach, ancestor to the familly of MacLochlin, some whereof were monarchs of Ireland.

Note: this is incorrect. The McLaughlins properly descend from Niall Glundubh rather than from his brother, Domnall.

103.Muirchertach na ccochall ceraiciann, i.e., of the leather cloaks; had two brothers, Conell and Maoilciaran but no issue from either that we find.

104.Domnall of Ardmacha, the 173rd Monarch of Ireland, after 24 years' reign, died at Ardmacha, A.D. 978. During his long reign we find but little progress by him made against the invading Danes, but wholely bent his arms against his subjects, preying, burning and slaughtering the Connacians, whether deservedly or not, I know not. But know it was no seasonable time for them to fall foul upon one and other while their common enemy was victoriously triumphing over them both.

105. Muirdaigh, the son of Domnall of Armagh;; had a younger brother Muirchertach, from whom descend the O'Neills, in later centuries Princes of Tyrone and Lords of Clanaboy.

106. Lochlan, the son of Muirdaigh. Of Lochlan, little is known, except that by legend he was the son of a Viking Princess, hence his name (Lochlan, i.e., Land of the Norsemen)

107. Ardgar MacLochlainn, son of Lochlan. Ardgar, the King of Aileach, died A.D. 1064. Was the first to assume the surname MacLochlainn (McLaughlin).

108. Domnall MacLochlainn, the King of Aileach and the 179th Monarch of Ireland, reigned jointly with Muirchertach O'Brien, the Kingof Munster, and alone, both before and after him, 35 years, most of which time was spent in bloody wars and devastations between these two competitors, until at length they agreed to the old division of Leath Mugha (the south) and Leath Cuinn (the north) between them; and both ended their days penitently, Muirchertach a monk at Lismore, A.D. 1119 and Domnall in the Monastery of Columcille at Derry, now Londonderry, A.D. 1121.

109. Niall MacLochlainn, son of Domnall. The King of Aileach; had a brother, Conor. Died A.D. 1119; 28 years old.

110. Muirchertach MacLochlainn, his son, the King of Aileach and the 182nd and last save one Monarch of Ireland of the Milesian Irish. A warlike, victorious and fortunate Prince, brought all the provinces of Ireland under his subjugation, forced hostages from them and after 10 years' absolute reign, was by Donoch O'Carroll, King of Oirgialla or Oriell , slain in battle, A.D. 1166.

111. Domnall MacLochlainn, his son. King of Aileach and the Lord of the Cinel Eoghainn (Clann Owen); Slain at the battle of Caim Eirge in 1241 in presentday Londonderry Co. by the combined forces of the O'Neills, his kinsmen, and the O'Donnells. After which the O'Neills gained the supremacy of the north of Ireland and never again were challenged by the McLaughlins.