The Leabhar na g-Ceart (Book of Rights)
Edited by O'Donovan




      The Privileges of the kings of Aileach

The tributes of the king of Aileach and his stipends 
here, and his tributes from his territories, and his 
stipends to them.

    A hundred sheep and a hundred cloaks and a hundred cows 
     and a hundred hogs from Cuileantraidhe.
    Thirty hogs and thirty cows and thirty wethers from 
     Tuath Ratha.
         Three hundred hogs and three hundred cows and three 
     hundred wethers from the men of Lurg.
         Three hundred cows, three hundred beeves, a hundred 
     tinnes from the King of Ui Fiachrach.
         A hundred beeves and a hundred cows and a hundred hogs 
     and fifty cloaks from the Ui Mic Caerthainn.
         Three hundred hogs, three hundred cows, three hundred 
     beeves from the Cianachta of Gleann Geimhin.
         Ten hundred milch-cows, a hundred beeves, fifty oxen, 
     fifty hogs from the Fir Li.
         A hundred milch-cows, fifty hogs, fifty cloaks from the 
     Ui Tuirtre.
         A hundred beevs, a hundred milch-cows, fifty cloaks from 
     the men of Magh Iotha.

         The free chieftainships of Aileach, i.e., Tulach Og and 
     Craebh and Magh Iotha and Inis Eoghain and Cineal Chonaill:  
     of these the learned man, viz., Benean, son of Sescnean, 
     sang:

          The right of the king of Aileach, listen ye to it.
          Among the oak-forests immeasurable
          He is entitled to income, no trifling tribute,
          From the tribes and from the Forthuatha.


          A hundred sheep, a hundred cloaks, a hundred cows
          And a hundred hogs are given to him,
          From Cuileantraidhe of the war
          to the king of Aileach laboriously.

          Three hundred hogs from Tuatha Ratha2
          Three hundred cows with copious milk,
          Thirty wethers in the yellow month [August]
          Are due to the king of Aileach, all.

          Three hundred hogs from the men of Lurg3
          Three hundred cows, not small the wealth,
          Three hundred wethers living
          To the king of Aileach of the spacious house.

          There is due from the king of Ui Fiachrach4
          Three hundred cows, - not a promise of words, 
          A hundred beeves and a hundred heavy tinnes5
          To the king of Feabhal of the ready ships.

          A hundred beeves from the Ui Mic Carthainn6
          And a hundred hogs, - 'tis not very trifling,
          Fifty cows, a lawful payment,
          Fifty cloaks with white borders.

          Three hundred hogs by which the north is replenished
          Three hundred cows to feed the host,
          Three hundred beeves, wealth for war
          From Cianachta7 of the abundant store


1.  unknown territory
2.  NW Fermanagh;  O Flanagan chieftains tributary to Maguire.
3.  Barony of Lurg, in the north of Fermanagh.  O Maelduin were
    chiefs, tributary to Maguire.
4.  Ui Fiachrach Arda Sratha  (Ardstraw)  NW Tyrone.  To be
    distinguished from the Ui Fiachrach of Connacht.
5.  tinnes:  a hog killed and salted.
6.  Descendants of Forgo, son of Caerthainn, son of Earc,
    grandson of Colla Uais.  Tirkeerin, a barony of Londonderry
    (Tir Chaerthainn).
7.  Race of Cian, son of Ailill Olum, king of Munster.  Barony of
    Keenacht, Londonderry.  In the possession of O'Conor of 
    Glengiven;  displaced by the O'Kanes in the 1th century.



          Ten hundred milch-cows from the people of Li1
          A hundred beeves, it is the award of truth,
          And fifty oxen of Oxen
          with fifty hogs of heavy bellies.

          A hundred milch-cows from the Tuathas of Tort2
          Fifty tinnes, fifty hogs,
          With fifty colored cloaks are given to him
          From Dun-na-h-Uidhre3 in one day.

          A hundred beeves from the men of Magh4
          And a hundred milch-cows full rich,
          fifty cloaks, an award of tribute
          To the intrepid king of Aileach.

          There is not due from Tulach-Og5
          A tribute to the king of Feabhal of the banquets,
          Because it is in its proud land assumed
          the  sovereignty over the men or Eire.

          There is not due out of the Craebh
          A tribute to the king of Aileach of comeliness,
          There is not due from Magh Iotha
          A tribute of tax for their fair territories.


1.  Fir Lir of the Bann, descended from Colla Uais.  Territory
    of Magh-Li, west of the Bann.  Driven across the Bann by the
    O'Kanes.
2.  The Ui Tuirtre, seated on the east of the Bann and Lough
    Neagh, in Antrim.  Descent:  Colla Uais.
3.  Unknown
4.  i.e., Magh Ith.  An esxtensive plain in the barony of Raphoe,
    Co. Donegal, named after Ith, the uncle of King Milesius, who
    was slain there.
5.  A branch of the O Cathainns (O'Kanes) called Fir na Craeibhe;
    west side of the lower Bann.


          There is not due from Inis Eoghain
          A tribute to the chief king, nor gratuity,
          There is not due of the race of Conall1
          A tribute, or custom, or white [unwrought] wool.

          Those are the tributes of the king of Aileach;
          No one is learned who does not well know them;
          No king is entitled to reign or rule
          Who does not maintain his right.



         These are the payments and stipends of the king of
      Aileach to his chieftainries and tribes, to refection and
      escort.


    The king of Aileach himself, then, when he is not
    king of Eire, is entitled to sit by the side of the king
    of Eire at banquet and at fair, and to go before the
    king of Eire at treaties and assemblies and councils and
    supplications.
      And he is entitled to receive from the king of Eire
    fifty swords and fifty shields and fifty bondmen and
    fifty dresses and fifty steeds:  these for the king of
    Aileach.  He distributes his stipends thus:

    Five shields, five swords and five drinking-horns
    and five women and five bondmen and five steeds to the 
    king of Cairbre Droma Cliabh.
    Five shields, five bondmen, five women, five swords
    to the king of Cineal Aedha of Eas Ruaidh.
    Six steeds, six shields, six swords, six
    drinking-horns, six blue colas and six green cloaks to
    the king of the Cineal Eoghaine.



1.  The inhabitants of Tir Chonaill;  families of O'Maeldoraigh
    (O'Muldory), O Canannain  (O'Canannans), O Domnaill 
    (O'Donnell), O Buighill  (O'Boyle), O Galchobhair 
    (O'Gallagher), and O Dochartaigh  (O'Dogherty).



         Five steeds, five shields, five swords and five
         cloaks, five coats of mail to the king of the Cineal
         Eanna.
             Seven women, seven bondmen, seven steeds, seven
         swords to the king of Cineal Lughdhach.
             Seven bondmen, seven women, seven swords, seven
         drinking-horns, to the king of Inish Eoghain.
             Six steeds, six drinking-horns, six swords, six
         shields, six hounds to the king of Magh Iotha.
             Three steeds, three shields, three swords and three
         drinking-horns to the king of the Ui Fiachrach of Ard
         Sratha.
             Three steeds, three shields, three swords, three
         drinking-horns to the king of the Fir Luirg.
             Three steeds, three shields, three swords, three
         green cloaks to the king of Craebh.
             Three women, three mantles, three tunics to the king
         of Ui Mac Caerthainn.
             Three steeds, three shields, three drinking-horns,
         three swords to the king of Cianachta Gleanna Geimhim.
             Six bondmen, six horses, six swords, six shields to
         the king of the Fir Li.
             Three women, three bondmen, three steeds to the king
         of Ui Tuirtre.
             Fifty bondmen and fifty dresses and fifty cloaks and
         fifty coats of mail to the king of Tulach Og.  Of this
         division and distribution Benean sang thus as below,
         viz.:


          O Man, if thou hast gone northwards
          Across Magh Iotha of the hardy border,
          Tell the stipend of every one
          From the king of Aileach of the serene brow.

          When over noble Eire reigns not
          The king of Aileach of the vast tribute,
          He is entitled to sit without fail
          By the side of the king of Eire of noble mansions.


          Fifty swords, fifty shields,
          Fifty bondmen, - it is a great debt,
          Fifty dresses, fifty steeds  [from this monarch]
          to the king of Aileach of high decisions.

          Entitled are his chieftains of prosperity
          From the king of Aileach of the armed battalions,
          After resting from a hard march, I have heard,
          To stipends and gifts.

          Five shields, five swords, five drinking-horns,
          Five steeds, five women, great their hilarity,
          To the king of Cairbre of Druin Cliabh1
          From the king of AIleach of grand bridles.

          Entitled is the king of Cineal Aedha2
          To five shields, five slender swords,
          Five bondmen brought over the bristling surface of the
          sea
          Five fair-haired, truly-fine women.

          The king of the Cineal Boghaine3, the firm,
          Is entitled to five steeds for cavalry,
          Six shields, six swords, six drinking-horns,
          Six green cloaks, six blue cloaks.

          Entitled is the king of Cineal Eanna4
          To five beautiful, powerful steeds,
          Five shields, five swords of battle,
          Five mantles, five coats of mail.

          Entitled is the king of Cineal Lughdhach5
          To seven swords for hard defence,
          Seven women, seven bondmen, early,
          Seven noble steeds to the hero.


1.  Barony of Carbury in the north of Sligo.
2.  Race of Aodh.  Barony of Tir Hugh, Donegal.
3.  Race of Eanna Boghaine.  Territory of Tir Boghaine, present
    barony of Banagh, Donegal.
4.  Race of Eanna, son of Niall of the Nine Hostages;  barony of
    Raphoe, Donegal.
5.  Tribe name of the O'Donnells.  Original territory from the 
    stream of Dobhar to the river Swilly.



          Entitled is the king of Inis Eoghain
          To six bondmen, - no great gratuity,
          Seven steeds, six women [brought] over the sea
          Seven beautiful horns for drinking.

          Entitled is the king of Magh Iotha
          To six beautiful steeds from other countries,
          Six drinking-horns, six swords, six hounds,
          Six fair shields from beyond the seas.

          Entitled is the king of Ui Fiachrach Fionn
          To six beautiful steeds at his good lake,
          Three shields, three drinking-horns, three swords
          From the might-deeded, noble king of Aileach. 

          Entitled is the king of the Fir Luirg, the hero
          To three beautiful steeds brought from over the deep
          sea,
          Three shields, three polished swords
          And three brown drinking-horns.

          Entitled is the king of the Craebh to a gift
          Three strong steeds, as stipend,
          Three shields, three swords of battle,
          Three green cloaks, of even color.

          Entitled is the king of Ui Mic Caerthainn
          to three tunics with golden borders,
          Three beautiful, fair mantals,
          Three befitting bondwomen.

          Entitled is the king of Gleann Geimhin
          To three bay steeds assuredly,
          Three shields, three drinking-horns, three swords
          Every year from the hand of the king of Aileach.

          Entitled is the king of the Fir Li of the lake
          To six shields, six swords of battle,
          Six slender, proud horses 
          And six bondmen of great work.

          Entitled is the king of the northern Ui Tuirtre
          To three swift horses for cavalry,
          Three women with fair heads of hair
          And thre large, enslaved bondmen.

          Entitled is the strong king of Tulach Og
          To fifty prosperous bondmen over his fields,
          Fifty swords, fifty steeds,
          Fifty mantles, fifty coats of mail.

          Here is the history of Niall's race 
          I find it in books, clearly;
          Benean's faithful hand, without reproach,
          Was the one that wrote it there, O Man.